Approach to Cancer Care
Some specialized cells in the body like the reproductive cells divide in a different process called meiosis. During cancer, genetic changes disrupt this normal process, and cells multiply rapidly to form what is known as a tumor, a mass of these cells (Eggert, 2010). The tumor may either be benign or malignant meaning they stay at one local site or spread to other areas respectively. Some cancers do not develop into tumors. Instead, they infiltrate lymphoid and bone marrows and disrupt, the normal functioning of these tissues. Under this several points, things will be addressed, and these are staging and diagnosis; complications; treatment effects and how to reduce the physiological and psychological needs. Diagnosis Diagnostic tests for cancer are carried out when one has symptoms suggesting cancer or screening tests are suggestive of cancer.
The first thing the doctor does is to ask about one’s history, both family and medical and then they will proceed to a physical exam. After that, the doctor orders various tests, guided by the findings in the physical exam. These tests include lab tests, scans, and other procedures. M is where cancer has metastasized to other parts. So, for the primary tumor (T) TX refers to where it is not possible to evaluate the tumor. T0 is where there is no primary tumor. T1 through to T4 talk about the extent and size of the primary tumor. For regional nodes (N) NX is where cancer is indeterminable in nearby nodes (Diagnosis and Staging, 2017). It results from both malignant and non-malignant conditions like infection and multiple sclerosis all of which are due to cancer.
Also, dyspnea/breathlessness is another complication where one finds it difficult to breathe and may even feel pain during breathing. Tumors that develop in the airways could lead to obstruction of the airways, i. e. , both the large and the small airways resulting in dyspnoea. How to Cope with Emotional and Psychological effects So, what are the methods employed to lessen the physical and psychological effects of treatment? For a complication like fatigue, one useful way to cope is to participate in exercise programs. The program is conducted by a practicing physiotherapist who assesses one’s condition and recommends how much and how long one should exercise. For nausea and vomiting, antiemetics are prescribed by the physician to reduce the frequency.
Pain, on the other hand, is managed by using various analgesics which the clinician will recommend after analyzing one’s condition. Psychological side effects, on the other hand, are handled in multiple ways. It starts by talking a bit about cancer, how it develops whereby genetic changes lead to uncontrollable cell division. There are many types of cancers, and they include carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma. The paper also presents the diagnosis of cancer which is arrived at using a combination of physical examinations, lab tests, imaging techniques, and biopsies. The staging of cancer using the TNM system is highlighted as well. The paper goes on to discuss some complications of cancer like dyspnoea, nausea and vomiting and fatigue. & Gerhardt, C.
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