Barriers and motivators to gaining access to smoking cessation services amongst deprived smokers
Various research has been conducted to find suitable ways of preventing the use of tobacco (Golechha, 2016, p. In this paper, a critical analysis is done on an article, " Barriers and motivators to gaining access to smoking cessation services amongst deprived smokers-a qualitative study” A description of the methodologies, reasons for research, implications on general health, and recommendations for future researchers have been given. The research is in line with public health and health promotion, and issues regarding smoking rates among young adults in the socio-economically deprived bracket. The paper is structured in the following order, the results of the research, methodology, analysis, gaps and future research, existing research, political and organizational influence, and recommendations on best practices, precisely, Brief’s Intervention and 5’As, and conclusions.
The research aimed to investigate the specific motivators and barriers that prevented smokers from gaining access to services that are designed to enable them to quit smoking. The researchers concluded that the best strategy that would help regulate smoking among these people should be more personalized, nonjudgmental, and with free and flexible pharmacotherapy support (Roddy et al. , 2006, p. Other experts have suggested pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation as capable of reducing withdrawal symptoms. Also, it prevents the reinforcing impacts of nicotine without leading to excessive adverse effects. All forms of (NRT) nicotine replacement therapy such as an inhaler, gum, patches, and bupropion are effective and safe for increasing cessation rates of smoking in both in the long and short-term (Jiloha, 2014, p. 11, Hieneman, 2015, p.
Research Methodology Research methodology is a critical step in determining its credibility, variability, and reliability (Bishop, 2012, p. The researchers relied on Manchester Information and Associated Services in the identification of the 5% most deprived people of Greater Nottingham enumeration districts. A total of 5000 households were identified. They used the highest Townsend Score. , 2006, p. They are thus able to investigate several aspects relating to smoking. Going through the opinions of smokers can help in finding solutions to the issue. The researchers held focus groups early in the morning at the community premises, and each session had 10 participants. The investigators gave the participants study questions ahead of the sessions. A group approach was applied to analyze the data rigorously and systematically and to minimize interpretation bias form the transcripts text (Simundic, 2013).
At the start, every researcher worked individually. Then they met to make agreements concerning the themes. Again, they independently went through the articles to identify categories depending on the issues within these themes before having an agreement on the categories that existed within the themes. They decided to refine and created categories where data was not able to fit in the provided definitions (Roddy et al. An appropriate sample should not be too large or too small. However, a proper sampling technique should take into consideration the characteristics of the population under study to improve its validity and applicability (Lagares Barreiro and Puerto Albandoz, 2018, p. The sample used is not too large or too small considering that the investigation aimed at studying the population of Nottingham disadvantaged smokers.
However, the definition of poverty in terms of levels of income should have been provided so that such results could be applicable in other areas and not only Nottingham. Poverty could be relative. , 2006, p. From the research it is evident that a more personalized approach could encourage participation on cessation services. Gaps and Future Research The classification used in determining poverty levels such as income and educational levels is not elaborated. More explanation should have been made on the determination of poverty level. It is also true that education can be a determinant of socio-economic class though not all the times (Zimmer et al. 1) Therefore, the research is similar to the work of other investigators who have confirmed the connection between poverty and increased chances of smoking indicating that poor people are likely to resort to smoking as a way of dealing with other life issues such as stress, and addiction (Laaksonen et al.
Other agencies including the World Health Organization have consistently suggested the idea of raising taxes as a way of discouraging poor income earners from tobacco use (World Health Organization, 2018, p. The World Health Organization has consistently recommended a raise of tobacco prices as a health policy that will reduce consumption of tobacco among young people and individuals from poor socioeconomic background. Such an initiative has registered impressive performance in low-income countries such as Gambia (Nargis et al. , 2016, p. Brief’s Intervention and 5’As Brief Interventions can be described as practices that aim at investigating a possible problem in a short interaction and then motivating the individual to start doing something about the issue. Brief interventions enhance motivation on tobacco users then urging them to change and connecting smokers with evidence-based resources to facilitate success of quitting the habit of smoking (Mdquit.
org, 2018, p. 5As method can be successfully incorporated with motivational techniques in a step by step process. The 5As is a goal-directed approach and brief by meeting the needs of tobacco addicts when it comes to readiness to quit The 5As are: 1. The recommendations are in line with other guidelines such as “Briefs Intervention and 5A’s” that provide personalized, evidence-based treatment strategies. Healthcare policy makers and other relevant stakeholders should implement the above recommendations in order to achieve success on tobacco cessation. Future research should focus on investigating the deeper connection between poverty and smoking. References Bishop, L. Using archived qualitative data for teaching: practical and ethical considerations. , Jaen, C. R. , & Baker, T. B. A clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update a U.
doi. org/10. 1007/s40617-015-0051-6 Jiloha, R. Pharmacotherapy of smoking cessation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(1), p. , Thompson, D. , Wagener, T. , Terrell, D. and Campbell, J. A structural equation modeling approach to understanding pathways that connect socioeconomic status and smoking. , Janodia, M. , & Muddukrishna, B. Informed consent: Issues and challenges. Journal Of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research, 4(3), 134. http://dx. Socioeconomic status and smoking. European Journal of Public Health, 15(3), pp. Lancaster, T. A comprehensive tobacco control programme had dramatic impact on tobacco consumption and smoking prevalence. Evidence-based Healthcare, 3(1), pp. Available at https://www. gov. uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/647069/models_of_delivery_for_stop_smoking_services. pdf [Accessed 30 Mar. Rink, M. Sedgwick, P. Generalisation and extrapolation of study results. BMJ, 346(may10 1), pp.
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