Biology Report

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Biology

Document 1

The behaviors of the living organism to their ecological niche can be adaptive or inherited from their parents. Physical adaptation of living the organism to the environment depends on the mode of feeding, the functional and modification unit of the organ to allow life process of the organisms to occur as they survive in their respective environments(Sultan, 2015). For example the sharp eye-sight of the hawk to spot the prey, strong muscles of the lion to capture its prey and other survival characteristics that increase survival. The report will address the main fiction of how the organisms and their body parts function to ensure survivals. Porifera Phylum Porifera is a classification of simple aquatic invertebrates that occupy a wide range of habitats mostly aquatic, marine and rarely terrestrials. The Porifera have variant body shapes but are mostly cylindrical with symmetrical or radially symmetrical. They are spongy in nature and are commonly referred to as the Porifera sponges. They have a cellular body system that is organized in different cells to meet different functions. Commonly Porifera sponges are filter feeders using spicule a small needle-like structure made that is made from silica. The sponging has a keratin that has far and hair surfaces that enable the organism to deter away from the predators like crustaceans. The ostia are used to draws water into the interior cavity of the organism while the Osculum exits the pores that remove the already filtered water outside the organism. The water is filtered to obtain the organic particulate that is a food source for the organism using the specialized cells called Choanocytes.

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The diagram below shows a sponge anatomy (http://paleo. cortland. edu/tutorial/Protista/porifera. htm). Cnidaria Cnidaria is phylum classification of the living organisms that have over 10000 species that are found in the aquatic environment and mainly in the marine environments. Cnidarian produces microscopic stinging structures called cnidae or nematocysts. They have radially symmetrical and lack sensory organs in the head with two cell body layers called the polyp and medusa with saclike coelenteron that acts as the mouth. They move with aid of the Medusa structure in a jet like propulsion. Earthworms are commonly occupying terrestrial habitats and others live in the soils with moist and organic content. They can grow to an estimate of 20cm in length. Their bodies are divided into ring-like segments of 32-37 segments. They have the hermaphroditic type of reproduction in a cocoon called the clitellum in the body segments that encloses the eggs that are later deposited into the soil waiting to hatch.

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They have streamlined body shape that allows them to burrow underground the soil. The slow movement exposes it to predators like fish, crabs, human birds and even sharks. They use the spiky shell for protection. They have microscopic eyes at the end of each arm and can see during the night and day. The hydraulic system of the fish helps in movement and at the same time in feeding. They mostly occupy the deep blue sea habitats. The reproductive systems whether male or female considering the ovaries and sperm being the determinant of whether male or female, a respiratory system to measure the volume and lung capacities right from the snare, trachea, and lungs. The below diagram shows the pig dissection (http://nhssc. info/eefa/e6c8f8cc1728/photos-fetal-pig-anatomy-diagr-4ebcd5). Animal Tissues (adipose, connective, nervous, muscle, epithelial) The animal is capable of the movement from one place to other in search of food, mates or escapes adverse condition like a danger to enhance life and survival where they adapt to that condition.

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The movement is aided by the body muscles that are made of tissues like adipose, connective, nervous, muscle, epithelial. They are found in the stomach and intestines lining to allow passage of food substance through the digestive systems v) Nervous Tissue are classified into two main types name: a)Nerve cells that function to transmit impulses that carry information to the entire body, b) Neuroglia supports and protects the nerves cells The figure below shows the different animal tissues (https://www. slideshare. net/WendyWhyte/animal-anatomy-and-homeostasis-ss-61324768) Eye An eye is one of the major five senses that are mostly used for sight and response to light and pressures. They help the organism to search for food and even aid the animal to escape danger. The common anatomy of the eye is divided into three layers namely; i) Outer fibrous layer that comprises of conjunctiva Sclera, and cornea, ii) The middle parts is eye which has the vascular layer; is comprised of the iris, the ciliary body and choroid iii) The Inner layer of the eye consist of the retina made of Rod cell and cones cells iv) and blood vessels that supply the eye with blood.

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The meatus has a hair lines skin and wax that trap dust preventing foreign materials from entering into the middle ear. The tympanic membrane is a thin semi-transparent broader and semi-oval structure that receives sound waves and vibrates and transmits the vibrations to the middle ear. ii) The middle ear consist Eustachian tube, the three bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) and tympanic cavity. The threes ossicles receive, amplify and transmit the sound from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. iii) The inner ear consists of the cochlea and vestibular apparatus. They are single-cell eukaryotes organism that produces by meiosis and Mitosis as well to increase the population. In case of danger, the organism moves away from the danger using looping and somersaulting. If severely attacked, the organisms undergo a process of tissue regeneration called Morphallaxis.

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The organism is said to regenerate allowing the organism to “live almost forever”. The diagram below shows anatomy of Hydra (https://www. The diagram below shows a sponge organism (https://poriferabasics. weebly. com/anatomy. html) Works cited Sultan, Sonia E.  Organism and environment: ecological development, niche construction, and adaptation.

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