The nervous system and the endocrine system

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Biology

Document 1

Hence, neurons function by propagating electrical current from one region of the body to another. The cell-body is a vital part which inhibits or reinforce impulses reaching them, interconnect neurons, and supply nerve fibers with nutrients. TeachMeAnatomy, 2018) Neurons are divided broadly into three types; motor, sensory, and the interneuron (relay). This classification is based on their function, whereby the sensory neurons transmit signals from the sensory organs to the brain sensory center, the motor neuron innervating the muscles conduct electrical signals from brain motor region to different muscles, and the interneuron connects the motor with the sensory neurons (ScienceDaily, 2018). Reflex arch The reflex arch process involves the relay, sensory, and motor neurons. Firstly, sensory receptors on the body, for instance, the hand, are stimulated by the presence of a stimulus which generates a sensory signal that is carried by the afferent nerves to the spinal cord through a relay neuron (via the synapse). From spinal cord, the relay neuron propagates signals via the synapse and goes into the motor neuron up to the effector muscle causing it to contract. Nerve impulse Electrical signal results when there is a disturbance in the resting membrane potential of -70mV and this is due to an influx of sodium ions. At the point of threshold depolarization, an action potential will be generated and will travel along the axon at a speed of 150m/s up to the synapse (axon terminal). The synaptic transmission will be through a neurotransmitter like acetylcholine, which will originate from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic vesicles.

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It also promotes mineralocorticoid which helps in maintaining blood pressure and testosterone that helps in sperms formation and male secondary characteristics. Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone promote the release of sex steroid (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) that promote female and male characteristics, and prolactin hormone that causes the female to produce milk. The posterior pituitary lobe is not modulated by the hypothalamus. It produces the following hormones; antidiuretic hormone which regulates reabsorption of water at the renal and oxytocin which cause milk release and contraction of the uterus (Kemp, 2018). The hypothalamus found in the brain regulates body temperature, satiety, and metabolism. This prevents synthesis of inflammatory mediators, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. Additionally, it also inhibits lipocortin-1 and synthesis of proteins that facilitate inflammation. Therefore, it is used commonly in patients with asthma. Mineralocorticoid is another steroid hormone used in the regulation of blood pressure (water and salt balance).

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It binds to nuclear receptors and its effects are mediated by slow or fast genomic mechanisms. Signaling molecules such as MAP kinase, protein kinase, diacylglycerol, and calcium will be recruited and participate in changes that will lead to growth and increased metabolism (Carter-Su, 1996). Feedback regulation Negative feedback It is a process that decreases a specific function. It reduces the effect caused by the system thus stabilizing the condition, an important process in homeostasis. Examples of negative feedback systems in the body include; the body temperature regulation. Temperature control is done by the hypothalamus. Additionally, insulin will stimulate glycogenesis, a process that reduces blood sugar. On the other hand, in the case of low blood sugar, for instance, after an exercise, the alpha cells will secrete more glucagon that will promote glycolysis which increases blood glucose levels (Moreau, 2018).

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Positive control A positive feedback mechanism is where the final products of a system induce more action of the system. In the body, a positive feedback is seen in the following processes; blood clotting; where the activated platelets activate other platelets, childbirth; where the oxytocin released induce the release of more oxytocin, during digestion; where more of pepsinogen is converted to pepsin for protein digestion, and in nerve signaling during ion influx (Biology Dictionary, 2018). Positive feedback control in nerve signaling For a nerve impulse to emerge, there must be a potential differences between the outside and the inside of the CNS cells, which will generate an action potential. This is different to the nervous system which works by the action of neurotransmitters. Conclusion Homeostasis is the maintenance of normal body functioning.

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This is essential so that the cells, tissues, and organs in the body can function efficiently. Both the endocrine system and the nervous system participate in feedback control so as to maintain homeostasis. References Ganong, W. Kemp, S.  Endocrine System Anatomy, Function, Organs & Glands. online] eMedicineHealth. Available at: https://www. emedicinehealth. online] ScienceAid. Available at: https://scienceaid. net/biology/humans/homeostasis. html [Accessed 23 May 2018]. Biology Dictionary.

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