Causes and Risk Factors for Developing a Brain Infection
People located in some parts like within the tropics are vulnerable to Zika due to the presence of related mosquitoes. In this proposal various ideas and thoughts of scholars have been elaborated on how causes and risk factors for developing brain infections can be mitigated. Use of biomarkers has been an area of research in understanding the cells of the brain which get affected by the infection and thus easy treatment. Vaccinations have been suggested in various locations with Aedes type of mosquitoes to reduce the infection of Zika. However the suggested way of solving the problem of brain infection in this project has been based on phagocytes due to the limitations of the above two mentioned ways. Pregnant women who have been diagnosed with the fetal microcephaly are due to the Zika infection and being a mosquito borne infection we have places which are prone to the problem and mostly tropical regions (Oliveira Melo, & Bispo de Filippis, 2016).
bacteria like Streptococcus pneumonia is one of the devastating diseases which do attach the brain and end up causing infection like meningitis and much about the morphological structure of how the brain is damaged through this bacteria is unknown (Wippel, et al, 2013). Central nervous system infections have become one of major burden diseases in the world as they are resulting to high morbidity and mortality rates. In reciprocating to this having the right initiatives and diagnosis in treatment are vital in reducing the problem (Rohlwink, & Figaji, 2014). Literature Review The overview for this literature section will look into the various brain infections and their causes. For example, the Toxoplasma gondii do target the neurons (Cabral, et al, 2016). This parasite is the main cause of neurogical disease which mostly affects the fetus and infected mothers lack symptoms to show they are affected.
Understanding the cells which are affected by the Toxoplasma is knowledge obtained from studying tissue culture. In understanding the knowledge between host-bacteria interactions a novel model has been used which make it possible to track and mark the cells of the brain which interacting with the parasite. Through the study using this model it is entirely clear that Toxoplasma interacts with neurons alone and thus in treating the disease you have to understand the parasite interaction with neurons (Cabral, et al, 2016). The two women’s diagnosed to have fetal microcephaly had symptoms of Zika infection. Cases of the intrauterine infection which do affect the brain are very rare and many of the cases are linked to the West Nile encephalitis. Presence of Calcifications is an indication of being affected by intrauterine infection.
Severe damage of the brainstem, thalami and cerebellum is not connected to the intrauterine infection. Pneumococcal is the common cause of bacteria which causes meningitis and through this infection large number of patients does suffer from long term disabilities. According to the study conducted by Yockey, et al (2016) showed that vaginal tract is susceptible place of Zika replication and thus transmitting the infection to the unborn baby. Earlier, Zika has been seen to be transmitted through Aedes type of mosquito but recently we have other means like the sexual ways. Sexual ways, can result to the transmission of the infection when involved with infected person and mostly happen from males to females. When pregnant women are at the point of getting this infection they are highly to have many complications (Yockey, et al 2016).
Most of the babies born with microcephaly from mothers who have these infections have been diagnosed with Zika in their brains. The findings from this experiment will imply that neuron-parasite implies that neurons are not the main bystanders that are commonly infected by parasites but the neurons are the main elements in establishing CNS infections. From the data collected from the experiments the cyst location profiling does suggest that the physical properties of the CNS have an active role in driving the Toxoplasma-neuron predilection. In concluding the findings of this experiment it is clear that a new paradigm for the CNS-Toxoplasma interactions whereby the direct neuron and parasite interactions do play a critical role in establishing a successful, chronic CNS infection (Cabral, et al 2016).
All the recommendations for Zika virus are based on that the idea that Viremia lasts for less than one week after infection. Diagnosing the presence of RNA serum on the blood samples is the best diagnostic method. The findings obtained from this research do indicate that synaptic loss is present in infectious diseases affecting the brain like the pneumococcal meningitis. According to Wippel, et al (2013) High rate of glutamate concentrations were observed in CSF of human bacterial meningitis and this correlates to the severity of the disease. Suggested Problem Solution Biomarkers are measurable objectives which do indicate normal pathology and thus help in provision of relevant information about dynamic and pathogen activities (Rohlwink, & Figaji, 2014). Conducted studies have shown that biomarkers do provide insights into understanding of the pathophysiology of the CNS infection and response to treatment.
Through combining various biomarkers and assessing them through clinical and radiological ways their outcomes give foundation for further research. In considering the limitations of the above ways in solving the problem of the mental infections, the solution proposed in this paper involves use “professional phagocytes” cells (Santiago-Tirado, & Doering, 2017). The core function for the cells involves realizing presence of pathogen, internalizing them and taking relevant measures to kill them. We have cases where by some pathogens do evade such attacks and survive and this happens when the phagocyte is manipulated and turned into safe haven. Under this type of environment the microbes can multiply or increase and move to the most sensitive parts of the brain and thus giving rise to Trojan horse analogy.
These phagocytes will carry the intracellular microbes into the central nervous system. doi:10. 1371/journal. ppat. 1004622 Cabral, C. M. PLOS Pathogens, 12(2). doi:10. 1371/journal. ppat. 1005447 Driggers, R. 1056/NEJMoa1601824 Ghosh, S. , & Klein, R. S. Sex drives dimorphic immune responses to viral infections. The Journal of Immunology, 198(5), 1782-1790. M. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: Tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 47(1), 6-7. doi:10. 1002/uog. 15831 Rohlwink, U. L. False friends: phagocytes as trojan horses in microbial brain infections. PLOS Pathogens, 13(12), e1006680. doi:10. 1371/journal. doi:10. 1371/journal. ppat. 1006904 Wilson, E. H. Induction and role of elevated extracellular glutamate during chronic toxoplasma infection in the brain. The Journal of Immunology, 196(1). Retrieved from http://www. jimmunol. org/ Winkler, C. L. Peterson, K. E. Adaptive immune responses to zika virus are important for controlling virus infection and preventing infection in brain and testes.
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