Criminology Annotated Bibliography

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Criminology

Document 1

abqjournal. com/853053/fbi As per Albuquerque government reviewed journal that was updated on Monday 26th of 2016 at 1113 hours, New Mexico had been recorded as the third highest area in regard to the crime rate. It was in the previous year that it was rated second in terms of property crime rate. As per the FBI, there were 656 violent crimes per 100,000 residents of New Mexico. The FBI had the indication that there were changing trends in terms of crime. These were attributed to the changes in social dynamics and criminal gangs were finding new ways of getting around the laws. The gangs were getting to learn the operational behaviors of the law enforcers and trying to get ways of being invisible in their criminal activities. Arnon, S. Shamai, S. Ilatov, Z. Socialization agents and activities of young Adolescents. Adolescence, 43(170), 373-397. This is a mass media report where the author illustrates arguments over criminalization in different ways which have been as a result of negative sequences. These may range from political diversification, economic marginalization, religion, race and age (Arnon, Shamai & Ilatov, 2008). They have acted as the basis within which criminals have been judged and punished. For instance, religious beliefs have been majorly attributed to the radicalization of youth with an example of terrorism whereby certain communities are of the notion that some criminal activities are sacred. It enhances that such social behaviors get to be recognized as being deviant within society hence attracting judicial punishment. The book brings forth the understanding that criminal punishment should be based on the roots of law which will include criminal justice and imprisonment in racism and classism societies (Arnon, Shamai & Ilatov, 2008).

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Bao, Y. Fern, E. Building criminal capital behind bars: Peer effects in juvenile corrections. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(1), 105. Retrieved on February 14, 2018, from https://doi. org/10. qjec. This will include social status and class (Beyer, 2008). The journal has given access to information that could have been difficult to find in other ways with an example of people or cases that could be hard to track down or showing the unwillingness to talk and give out the required information. It illustrates the criminal dynamics in regard to age, sex, race, and religion as the major attributes to learning societal dynamics such as crime (Bayer, 2008). The journal though does not give a clear indication of how the changing social dynamics have led to change in criminal patterns. Butler, Judith. This is a mass media documentation that gives insight into how technology has made it even easier as information can be extracted by a click of a button and this is as a result of data digitalization.

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There could be shortcomings to this method though that will include inappropriateness of data, as well as the lack of control over the quality of the data corrected. This will be determined by the manner in which the data correction process was handled. As a result, the data could be termed as unreliable and of less importance to criminologists as well as other researchers (Denscombe, 2010). It should be noted though that stored data could be characterized by biases and poor quality data. percent in New Mexico. Ghauri, P. Research methods in criminal studies: A practical guide. New York. The government article that has been written by Ghauri, 2015, gives strong evidence of peer effects for a felony, petty larceny, drug offenses, felony sex offenses, burglary and aggravated assault. Government documentations are majorly supported by factual data whereas mass media reports and journals evolve around facts and theoretical analysis.

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Other differences could be as a result of personal interests such as biases and individual gains. Whereas individual authors will be profit-oriented, government documents will be focused on results. References Albuquerque FBI journal (2016). Crime on the rise in the state. org/10. qjec. Beyer, S. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students Journal of Information Systems Education, 19(3), 301-310. Bao, Y. Open University Press. Digital Future Report (2005). Los Angeles: USC Annenberg School. Ghauri, P. Research methods in criminal studies: A practical guide.

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