Exploring Diversity Ethics and Cultural Competency
The contemplated variables include age, customs of the people, gender of the patient, sexual orientation of the person, ethnicity among other variables. On the other hand, ethical decision making involves giving solutions to ethical dilemmas. In the field of criminology just like the field of medicine, there are a lot of decisions to be made. These decisions sometimes require reference to the ethical duty of the officer or the medical practitioner. Ethical decision making in most cases is seen in the field of medicine in which a medical practitioner is supposed to make decisions with proper reference to the ethical duty of the practitioner. In medical setting, there is a problem of difficulty to make choices for patients on what needs to be done and what does not need to be done (Ang et al, 2007).
The problem of difficulty to make a decision on a matter is due to the fact that the decisions may have some far reaching implications and consequences on someone (Corey, 2007). The implication of such consequences is that a person may be held accountable for a decision they have made and the communication they made in relation to a particular matter. Cultural competence requires that practitioners be attentive of the clients held values, language and preferences so that the decision making process can be effective. The role of cultural competence is that a practitioner is made capable of making difficult decisions having regard to the nature of preferences the patient or client has, the nature of preferences and whether they are merited or not (Mason, 1994).
They are therefore inclined to do certain things, prefer other things and detest something based on their cultural beliefs, values and practices. The other pillar or principle is the making of attempts to minimize or reduce the negative consequence of cultural differences (Mason, 1994). The negative implication of cultural difference can be minimized through acknowledgement of the diversity and the need to consider issues from the perspective of the client. This is instrumental in solving the problem of ethical dilemma in the context of criminology and medical practice. Cultural competence can also be applied directly to understand the motivation of a person and the rationale behind certain actions. On the face of it, female genital mutilation if barbaric and uncultured. One would even find no proper reason as to why young women in the communities yearn for it and prefer to have it done to them secretly.
To understand the ethical considerations in this matter, the fact finder need to put himself in the context of a woman in the African community practicing the act. Having done that, he would be in a position to appreciate the brainwashing and indoctrination that comes with the teaching that a woman who has not gone through the process is not yet a woman hence not ready for marriage (Mason, 1994). Having considered that, the fact finder would be in a position to understand the woman who had the genital mutilation act done on her secretly. Practitioners can weight both sides of an ethical dilemma and strike a balance between the two possible decisions, having regard to the overriding ethical considerations in the field of practice.
Striking a balance between two possible outcomes of a decision can sometimes be the most appropriate having regard to the dilemma created by conflicting ethical issues. In some occasions, the values conflict or contradict in light of the situation (Mason, 1994). There are occasions in which both decisions are wrong or both decisions appear right, having regard to the ethical considerations. In such occasions, it may be appropriate that the fact finder or the decision maker revisits the issue and makes attempts to see to it that a balance is struck between the two decisions (Ang et al, 2007). The best decision to make out of the ethical dilemma is to make a preference or choice in favor of the decision with less severe implication on the person concerned, having regard to the overriding ethical considerations.
Criminology has its ethical concepts and values, this is the same as other field especially the field of medicine which has an overlap of ethical values and principles with the aforementioned. The professions have a set of values and principles known to the professionals. Upon admission to the profession, a person is introduced to the ethical code of conduct. In most occasions, the ethical guidelines operate not just as normative guidelines but also as rules (Corey, 2007). The normative regulations depend on the individual person to make an assessment of the applicability and relevance of the rules before applying it (Ang et al, 2007). This analysis depend on critical thinking of the person to make the right choice out of the probable decisions.
Ethical decision making is a process, not just a single action it’s a process that solves the problem of ethical dilemma. The process involves ethical sensitivity, ethical judgment and the making of an ethical choice (Watson al, 1993). In the bid to solve the problem of ethical dilemma, a fact finder or a decision maker must have recourse in the ethical considerations, before arriving at the considerations themselves, he should have identified that there is a situation that needs solving based on ethical considerations and regulations (Mason, 1994). When a fact finder identifies an ethical issue, he proceeds to exercise his mental judgment on it. The process of applying the ethical knowledge and understanding on the ethical issue is the process of actual judgment.
Judgment therefore comes second after the decision maker has applied his ethical sensitivity to identify an ethical problem (Ang et al, 2007). The process also involves making reference to or consulting the code of ethics of the profession in order to see the exact provisions of the code and the manner in which they ought to be applied. Evaluation takes the form of looking at the advantages and disadvantages, compliance level with the overriding ethical norms and principles among other features to be considered (Corey, 2007). At the decision making stage, the decision maker needs to have gathered and considered all the relevant materials and considerations (Ang et al, 2007). These include the provisions of the codes of ethics used in the profession. The decision maker must consider the internal factors and the external factors pertaining to the decision.
He must identify and consider possible courses of action in the circumstances and the need to make the decision in preference of one against the other (Ford, 2013). At this stage, the decision maker may prefer to have some external consultation in which case, he can borrow a leaf from the written literature on the matter or consult a colleague before making his decision. The implication of this is that the ethical decision will be made without broad consideration of all relevant materials and information. In this regard, the ethical decision would not be the best. These problems associated with sole decision making process on ethical matters are solved through diversity. Diversity can be used an instrumental tool in solving the problem of ethical dilemma.
The problem of ethical dilemma is usually occasioned by the fact that there are more than one decision that can be made from a set of a given circumstance. In a homogenous group of decision makers, there would be ready consensus on most mattes. The implication of a homogenous group is not serious on the merit of the decision because the members of the group share ideologies and life experiences. In this regard, there is very little difference between a sole decision maker and a homogenous group of decision makers. Evaluation of the concepts of collaborative and communication techniques that have affected the development of relationships, partnerships, and alliances The concept of Collaboration Collaboration can be defined as the working together with someone or a group of people one had been in disagreement with.
Collaboration is sometimes seen in the context of working together with an enemy. Communication creates unity, transparency and accountability. When there is effective communication between one parson and another, one department and another, the firm or company gains much more than when there is communication breakdown (Das et al, 2008). Communication need to be effective communication capable of passing information while at the same time not causing any discomfort to the members of the firm or company. Effective communication considers the intended goal to be achieved in the communication. It considers the age, gender and seniority of the person to be communicated to (Corey, 2007). The team can also consider a lot of matters without bias because of the fact that they are all different.
In relation to concepts of collaboration and communication that affect the coming up of relationships, allies and partnerships, there is the concept of effective communication which seeks to facilitate the creation of relationships, alliances, relationships and maintenance of the said unions. References Ang, S. , Van Dyne, L. , Koh, C. , & Fraserirector, I. Can cultural competency reduce racial and ethnic health disparities? A review and conceptual model. Medical Care Research and Review, 57(1_suppl), 181-217. Corey, G. , Corey, M. Ford, R. C. , & Richardson, W. D. Ethical decision making: A review of the empirical literature. L. Developing culturally competent organizations. Focal Point, 8(2), 1-8. Simons, T. , Pelled, L. E. , Kumar, K. , & Michaelsen, L. K. Cultural diversity's impact on interaction process and performance: Comparing homogeneous and diverse task groups.
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