Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:History

Document 1

In India, ruined and degraded forest lands make up approximately 42 percent of the forest region. The need for protection and regeneration has never been this great with numerous programmes initiated and implemented by non-governmental and government alike. 2 However, Menon and Bawa maintain that the enactment of the Forest Conservation bill of 1980 saw a decline in about 15500 ha yearly, a figure that changed from the initial 150000 ha yearly before the year 1980. 3 Thus the total region has evened out to approximately 65 million ha. It points to the restoration and degradation of forest lands taking priority in implementation and planning. Tropical forests accounted for about 87 percent of the overall forest region. 5 The country made about 8 percent of the total global biodiversity with a total network of 586 Protected Regions although this number does not represent the total biogeographical regions.

Sign up to view the full document!

India is economically challenged with over 40 percent of its population living below $1 a day. Slightly a half of the population depends on agriculture with agricultural lands subdivided into tiny uneconomical parts and is majorly underutilized. 6 The country has a rapidly growing population with few employment opportunities in both industrial and agricultural. C. approximately 85 percent of India was made up of forest cover. However subsequent attacks altered the whole landscape. The first period of deforestation was however brief immediately after absorption into the British colony. The British Forest Policy of 1894 gave precedence to commercial utilization, state ownership, and permanent agricultural use. However, bamboo had totally been removed from many regions in the central parts of India due to overexploitation and no serious legislation protecting the area from human encroachment and grazing.

Sign up to view the full document!

Damage to natural regeneration: Sufficient natural regeneration was a sure sign of healthy and well-managed forestlands. However, according to Menon & Bawa over-grazing and constant fires often affected hardy species from regenerating. Constant animal hooves lead up to imperviousness and soil compaction. 10 It further degradation lead to serious impact due to organic matter damage. The productivity of India’s forest cover is often in the range of 1. 35 cu m/ha/ per annum compared to India’s humid areas that have approximately 7. 88 cu m/ha/ per annum (Jha et al. Due to the inability to make use of its forestlands productivity is thus reduced. Coupled with increasing stock numbers, it become challenging to attain a productive figure regarding forest covers. 15 The entire arrangement and framework of operation between villagers and leaders have led to boosted activities towards the conservation of the forest cover from the grass root levels.

Sign up to view the full document!

The last 30 years has seen villages take up water and soil conservation measures that include controlling forest fires, water conservation, controlled grazing, and stopping the destructive and indiscriminate extraction of endangered forest covers. 16 Under the Joint Forest Management, villages have taken bold steps towards conserving forest land by being first-hand custodians of the same at the grass root level. Other conservation measures by non-governmental organizations and the government include enactment of policies and forest upgrading programs. Additional Eco-restoration initiatives include doing away with subsidies, government initiatives, the establishment of areas under protection and voluntary participation by local organizations and groupings. S. Dutt, and K. S. Bawa. "Deforestation and land use changes in Western Ghats, India. Bawa. "Deforestation in the tropics: reconciling disparities in estimates for India.

Sign up to view the full document!

From $10 to earn access

Only on Studyloop

Original template