Ecology and Genetic Modification Literature Review

Document Type:Review

Subject Area:Ecology

Document 1

Therefore, it serves to be important for us to review current and past researches that are pertained to explaining this critical Scientific invention that seeks to editing of genetic compositions of organisms in order to enable them to be strong and be able to thrive in areas they would rather not be able to survive. This will, at long last provide a clear indication on the possible threats, effects (both positive and negative) on how this genetic engineering is affecting the current ecosystem in the world, and also be able to suggest various solutions to reducing the effects. Topic of Interest: Potential Ecological Risk of Genetically modified Organisms Essay Introduction Over the years’ science has always fascinated the average human being, however despite the so much fascination it has always remained clear up to now that scientific discoveries turn out to have a positive and a negative side to the field that it is intended to be used. Most scientific inventions are aimed at making things easy and fast to do. For instance, the invention of the locomotive engines, atomic bombs and so on they all were made for the good of those who were going to use them. Often, these the developers of these invention apply the rule of great or good to the concepts they have invented. This research article will on the possible impacts of genetic modification to the ecology. What is Ecology- the study of how organisms interact with each other day in day out. These organisms could be living organisms or non-living ones.

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All together when studied how they interact in the forms of dependencies upon one another is what is called ecology An ecological composition (ecosystem) would include all the above mentioned factors to be complete therefore the induction of change of any kind to an ecosystem would lead to a noticeable shift of characteristics and behavior of the ecosystem. The above example is just not clear but also one of the many risky situations we are putting our ecosystems in, when we are introducing more superior GMOs to the world day in day out. Join me as we explore other complicated evidences on how genetic engineering is affecting the world’s ecosystem. Purpose of the study: 1. Discuss the possible ecological risks brought about by emergency of genetically modified organisms. DISCUSSION: Potential ecological risks of genetically modified organisms There are numerous issues that emerge as a result of the introduction of the genetically produced organisms, these may be classified to those that affect human beings and those which affect other living organisms.

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In the United States, food allergies affect about 5% and 2% of children and adults which brings about a serious health situation in the country (enhs. umn. edu website,2014). These reactions normally occur when harmless proteins find their way to the body and mainly through ingestion. In cases where the genetically modified food substance is produced from a protein which can result in allergies, then the ingestion of that food substance could consequently cause an allergic reaction on the person. If the plant successfully grows in the new conditions, then it is determined that the plant has developed a resistance against the antibiotics. There are worries that bacteria living in some parts of the human body such as guts could develop the antibiotic resistance before being digested and lead to serious health issues which no one has seen yet, since it is not clear the impact of this could be, the possible risks of such an issue should be assessed correctly.

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Concertation of Heavy metals Sometimes it is unclear what the new breeds of genetically modified plants will bring up from the soil for storage as food to be consumed by whoever harvests, some of the crops can eventually end up picking up heavy metals such as mercury and storing them into tissues that are consumed by human beings. The purpose of some of these genetic modification projects is make plants that could utilize municipal sludge as fertilizers for their growth, the governments approve the growth of these plants in this sludge without prior knowledge that it contains some of the heavy metals that would rather be toxic when taken into the human body. To solve the issue, the engineer sequences these toxic chemicals to be stored in the inedible parts of the plant which is a brilliant idea, but the concern rises up in situations where the on and off switches of these genes fail to work.

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Due to the fragile condition of the fetus, it is evident that the perfection of the fetus formation and development of all the necessary body parts correctly is subject to these chemicals present in the blood stream of the mother and the child. This raises major concerns on the safety of ingesting genetically modified foods especially when pregnant. Glyphosate is known to cause a number of child malfunctions therefore it is advisable to avoid its consumption and the products that contain its traces. DNA transfers As earlier stated in the definition of genetic engineering, Genetically Modified Organisms are created through horizontal gene transfers which leads to alteration of genes, this is contrary to the natural way of bringing up organisms which involves reproduction. Natural reproduction involves vertical gene transfers, since horizontal transfers involve injection of an organism’s gene directly to another organism which is completely different, there arises new concerns that this Genetically Modified DNA injected can directly be transferred directly to the human being that consume the product of that engineering.

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org, (2016), web). Thus it is only justified if we raise a concern on the unknown certainty. Risks on the rest of the Ecosystem and environment With Hundreds of genetic modifications being made every day, their effects might be uneasy to notice and clearly grasp, however these gene alterations have their impacts on the environment that we co-exist together, some of the concerns under this topic are: 1. Horizontal flow of genes This can be described as contamination of non-target species of plants during reproduction of genetically modified plants the transfer if facilitated by cross pollination between the plants. These plants, mostly wild ones could require a lot of capital to deal with them during farming periods. This in turn reciprocates to lesser soil nutrients and higher levels of soil acidity which lead to death of the natural non GMO habitats in the region.

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Creation of new or powerful viruses Creation of virus tolerant crops involves incorporation of the virus genes into to the genomes of the host plants. It is clear that plants producing viruses for themselves are incapable of withstanding the viruses by themselves, this creates room for any chances of the produced viruses being able to overcome the plant and kill it. in that case Genetic engineering will have created a superior virus which if spread, will be unable or will require more funding than the project itself to find a cure. References Hoffman, C. gov/pubmed/17522828 Scientific Basis of Risks Associated with Genetic Engineering (2000), retrieved on 12th October, 2017 from the Virginia State University Website http://www. sites. ext. vt. edu/newsletter-archive/cses/2000-02/risks. umn. edu website http://enhs. umn. edu/current/5103/gm/harmful.

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