Esophagogastroduodenoscopy egd research
Patient indications for upper endoscopy include; patients presenting with dysphagia, EDG can be utilized to identify the possible gastrointestinal causes of the dysphagia. EDG can be used for the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding such as the management of oesophageal varices. In oesophageal varices, through upper endoscopy, the bleeding can be managed through sclerotherapy where medicine is placed in the varices or by tying them off using rubber bands. Abnormal bleeding in the stomach or the duodenum can also be managed through cauterization of bleeding vessels using EDG. EDG is also useful in the management of constrictions within the upper gastrointestinal tract. Critical issues to look out for are allergies to medications, signs or presence of food or bleeding in the abdomen and patient history of non-steroidal analgesic use which increases the risk of bleeding during the procedure.
During the insertion of the EGD or for newly inserted EDGin patients, essential assessments should focus on; monitoring the patient's vital signs such as breathing. Monitoring of the patient's breathing is imperative and a strong indicator that can be used to inform in case of aspiration of the stomach contents into the lungs during the procedure. Aspiration would be characterized by labored breathing and coughing. Breathing is also important as breathing is a measure to monitor the anesthetic effects during the procedure. Abnormal findings that can be identified during the procedure include; bleeding of the upper gastrointestinal system, the presence of abnormal growth, inflammation or presence of abdominal or duodenal ulcers among others. Findings of abnormalities in the gastrointestinal system will require individualized management of the conditions identified or further laboratory testing to identify the specific cause of the identified abnormality.
Identification of ulcers in the EDG will require further tests to confirm Helicobacter Pylori infection and management such as with proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics, analgesics among others depending on the underlying cause. The findings of inflammation in the upper gastrointestinal system will require further laboratory tests to be conducted to confirm the diagnosis of the findings and its cause so as to guide the patient's management. In patients with identified gastrointestinal bleeding, the bleeding can be managed either through cauterizing the bleeders as well as conducting further patient management to diagnose the causes of the bleeding in the gastrointestinal system. He reports that the pain has been on and off and gets worse when he has not taken any meals. The pain is relieved by meals.
He reports not to have had any medications to relieve the pain. He reports no observed bleeding in stool. Objective On observation, vital signs stable blood pressure 120/80, breathing 22 breaths per minute, heart rate 88 per minute. 50 Celsius. There was no notable bleeding or changes in the patient during the procedure. The patient was diagnosed with an ulcer of the duodenum. The patient was educated on post-EDG care and reassured. The patient was observed for a complete reversal from anaesthesia, assessment of pain indicated pain of a scale of 2 following the procedure, no flatulence, no vomiting, dysphagia or chest pain following the procedure. Sedation-related complications in gastrointestinal endoscopy. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 5(11), 527. doi: 10. 4253/wjge. v5. , & Richter, J. Concordance of Outpatient Esophagogastroduodenoscopy of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract with Evidence-Based Guidelines.
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