EVALUATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHLAMYDIA
The screening programs have been noted to reduce complications of chlamydial infection such as PID. There is outrageous commonest of asymptomatic men who function as reservoir for the infection as indicated from various epidemiological studies. Definition - Chlamydial pathogens infects many organ systems in the body. They are tiny gram- negative microorganisms that are mostly intracellular and mainly infects the epithelial cells that are squamocolumnar. Chlamydia is the genera and the species include chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydophila – which has the chlamydophila pneumoniae and the chlamydophila psittaci. The older adults may have severe infections which may also be repeated. C. psittaci – causes psittacosis/ornithosis, spread aerosols and droppings from birds with patients presenting with pneumonia or pyrexia of unknown origin. Signs and symptoms - All patients with chlamydial infection are likely to present with a history of sexually transmitted infections, pain on passing urine and a yellow discharge from the urethra that is mucopurulent.
Females with chlamydial infection tend to present with, discharge from the vaginal opening, vaginal bleeding that is abnormal, dyspareunia, low abdominal pain that has a slow onset but is progressive, fever, pain and inflammation around the rectum and anal opening with associated rectal discharge in individuals who practice receptive anal intercourse, history of practicing unprotected sexual intercourse. pneumoniae infection remain without symptoms. It has a 3-4week incubation period and the symptoms appear in a pattern that is biphasic with the first symptoms being those of an upper respiratory tract infection – sinusitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis with symptoms of pneumonia appearing after 1-4 weeks – prominent cough, headache, hoarseness of voice, rales and rhonchi are present even when the disease is mild. C.
psittaci pneumonia has an incubation period of 1 -2weeks or might be longer. There is an association of this infection with systemic illness, with an abrupt onset of symptoms – hotness of body, endocarditis, nonproductive cough, chest pain, photophobia, tinnitus, pain in joints, nose bleeding. In the year 2000 - 2011 the rates of the chlamydial reported cases skyrocketed, while there was a decrease reported during 2011 – 2013, with an increase of reports in the consecutive 3 years. The cases of chlamydia reported in 2016 by states scaled from 260. 6 cases out of hundred thousand population in New Hampshire to 771. 6 cases out of hundred thousand population in Alaska and 1,083. 4 cases out of 100,000 population in the District of Columbia. STD clinics reported 7. 2% of STD cases, 78. 4% reports from other sources outside STD clinics and 14.
4% sources were not known in 2015. Chlamydia is transmitted through sexual contact either orally, anal or per vaginal. trachomatis infections of the genitalia are estimated at 105. 7 million new cases worldwide as of 2008. Chlamydia is more prevalent in age 15-24years, with women being more asymptomatic and at a higher risk of developing complications. Diagnosis - Diagnosis of chlamydia is made by history from patients, their symptoms and signs plus other investigations which may include various tests to assess for complications and screening of chlamydia in young female who are sexually active. NAATs which is a molecular test that detects the DNA of chlamydia is the preferred diagnostic and screening test for chlamydia. Other symptoms may include conjunctival discharge, cough or fever in the newborns.
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