Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
An injury to the myocardium is known to be the cause of heart failure. The injury can result from three major causes: diabetes, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. Other less common causes are from infections, myocarditis, cardiotoxic drugs, and vulva disease (Smith, 2016). Symptoms that may arise as the heart fails include dyspnea which is caused by pulmonary congestion. Impaired venous may lead to peripheral edema and ascites. Evidence-Based Pharmacological Treatment of Heart Failure At the state level, several evidence-based strategies have been considered for the treatment of heart failure cases. Some of these strategies have been obtained from reliable sources and research carried out by specialists. Effective selective therapies have been used in the treatment processes (Abramov et al. Some of the methods chosen usually depend on factors such as a patient’s conditions, and cause of the heart failure.
Application of neuron-hormonal blockade therapy has been widely embraced within the state boundaries. Specialists should be able to establish etiology with focus on pathology. Hemodynamic mechanisms should be investigated and questioned. Some of these processes will help in establishing the cause of the HF and then provide a clear strategy that will be used in the treatment process. Other essential aspects should be the clarification of whether the condition is chronic or acute, it is also appropriate to determine the severity of the disease as moderate, severe, or mild. Medical experts should also determine if it is a right or left-sided failure. Readmission of patients is associated with several negative implications such as financial and emotional burden to the family members of the affected person.
HF management programs where education of patients is a critical aspect has proven to be effective mechanisms for reducing readmissions and improving self-care. Some of the treatment procedures require nurses to have the capacity to conduct an evaluation to establish individual needs and then define an education that will be able to offer self-care practices (Butler, 2011). Other factors to consider when providing this education is a patient’s level of education, cognitive abilities, and economic levels. Evidence points out that when patients have appropriate knowledge concerning their condition, it improves their understanding and will reflect this by being adherent to the requirements (Heidenreich, 2016). A proper diagnosis, assessment of heart failure followed by well-designed multidisciplinary teams can play a significant effort in lowering the adverse effects of HF symptoms and could prolong life.
Community and National Practices on HF Management of HF at the community and the national level varies in several ways. One observation is that at the national level, there are more advanced facilities, resources, and experts who can provide advanced care for heart failure cases. At the community level, the major services offered to Heart failure can be described as the mere primary care with little strategies that can provide comprehensive treatment. The community level lacks heart transplant and surgery facilities unlike at the national level, where some facilities could provide HF transplant and surgery. Individuals who live longer than their HF colleagues are known to have undergone early and comprehensive diagnosis of heart failure. Such a factor greatly determines early interventions and patient education that is likely to contribute to a much longer life expectancy.
Individuals who undergo early diagnosis have certain resources and characteristics that makes them ahead of other sufferers of heart failure. Individuals with high income, higher social class, advanced education, and urban dwellers are likely to receive an early and comprehensive diagnosis that will lead to the laying down of a comprehensive treatment plan thus reducing the adversity of possible complications (Braunwald, 2013). Individuals from high socioeconomic backgrounds are likely to have personal medical consultants. Illegal immigrants typically find it hard to come out in the open and seek public social and medical services. Some may not have medical insurance thereby putting them at risk of heart failure complications (Butler, 2011). They are likely to seek a later diagnosis. The treatment options may also sound too expensive for such individuals to afford thus putting them at risk of HF complications.
language barrier is another reason why HF may be challenging to manage. There is a difference in the manner that HF is managed across the world. The variation in the treatment of Heart Failure can be attributed to the difference in the number of resources and availability of physicians and heart specialists in these countries. The United States boasts some of the best healthcare facilities, resources, and specialists around the world. However, the US still lags behind other first world countries when it comes to healthcare. Such a difference can explain the variation in the manner that advanced and chronic disease is managed across the globe. The widespread of healthcare facilities around the country makes it easy for sufferers to access healthcare diagnosis and information when compared to developing countries.
It is also evident that many people from low an middle-income countries consider the USA as options for treatment of HF since there are no adequate facilities resources to handle HF. Developed nations such as Norway, UK, Australia, France, Switzerland, Canada, and Germany have similar or better treatment and management of Heart Failure compared to the United States of America. Factors that Contributes to Successful Management of HF Access to Care Easy access to care makes it possible for early detection/diagnosis, the creation of treatment plan, and adequate patient education. Early diagnosis is linked to the positive management of heart failure compared to late diagnosis (McDonald et al. Insured people with heart diseases are not allowed to pay any extra money because of their condition.
Some of the coverage offered for the insured that those uninsured may miss include benefits such as healthcare, emergency care, doctor’s visit, prescription drugs, rehabilitative services, preventive care, and lab services (Butler, 2011). Such coverage makes it easy for HF patients to receive care just because they are insured. Individual’s legally residing in the US can seek insurance coverage. In conclusion, insurance reduces the burden on the HF and the family members. In some cases, palliative care is recommended for stage 4 CHF patients. In some cases, palliative care is not an option but mandatory. However, it is good to note that, palliative care will only manage the symptoms (Butler, 2011). It also helps in advanced care planning, and to ensure the CHF patient has a medical power of attorney and is free to discuss his wishes.
Palliative care for end stage 4 HF may not be a treatment towards recovery, however, it has been associated with reduced symptoms and patient satisfaction. They are likely to tolerate disturbances or unnecessary noise. Family members may have to adjust to living with the person. Family members have to meet the new financial demands that are associated with heart failure. Frequent visits to the hospital, missing of works to take care of a loved one, meeting financial demands to respond to emergency cases, and even the patient’s new lifestyle may have to be supported from the pockets of the family members (WEEKS, 1996). The high cost of private HF healthcare is another burden that many families cannot resolve without external assistance. The strategies include encouraging the formation of a multidisciplinary team to come up with diagnosis and treatment plan.
Another approach is the use of evidence-based research to help in the treatment of heart failure. Lastly, I will promote patient education. The first step that involves a multidisciplinary team will be supported in their roles by receiving necessary resources that will help them carry out their duty. Lack of resources may lead to the wrong diagnosis and could form the basis of inappropriate treatment. Betta blockers should be added after stabilization of patient’s condition. Patients should also be taught on how to watch for symptoms of deterioration before titration of betta blockers can help prevent issues that may arise form titration. Digoxin reduces rates of hospitalization but does not improve survival (Trang & Aguilar, 2017). Another critical part of the management of HF is that clinicians must assess the patient’s response to dug admiration at the time of titration.
Monitoring weight loss and examination of neck veins are highly recommended. Clinicians should be advised to be open to HF patients concerning their lives. The fact that the condition is unpredictable and may lead to either sudden or predictable death implies that patients with severe diseases be made aware of possible outcomes so that they can make early plans concerning several aspects of their lives and families (Prasun, 2015). The multidisciplinary team should be made aware that the 1st step is an accurate diagnosis that will bring out the exact condition that a patient is suffering from. Heart failure causes and parts affected should also be identified before any treatment plan is designed. I will also promote the creation of a comprehensive education of these patients that touches on several aspects by bringing together experts such as Nutritionist, physicians, and psychotherapists who will help in the designing of HF patient education.
The United States of America has some of the most advanced medical facilities that have made tremendous efforts towards treatment of HF. However, the US still lags behind other industrialized nations. Most HF patients are likely to die within five years from diagnosis, such a phenomena can be reduced by early diagnosis, management, and provision of appropriate patient education. Various stakeholders should try and minimize some of the negative factors that hinders accessibility to healthcare. Such changes could make healthcare services easily accessible thus paving the way for early diagnosis and treatment. 1016/j. cardfail. 388 Braunwald, E. Heart Failure. JACC: Heart Failure, 1(1), 1-20. org/10. 1111/j. x Butler, J. Congestive Heart Failure Special Issue on Advanced Heart Failure. Congestive Heart Failure, 17(4), 159-159. 1097/01256961-200604000-00001 Heidenreich, P.
From $10 to earn access
Only on Studyloop