History of Smallpox

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Health Care

Document 1

Most of the victims are left with defaced scars or even lose their sight. The disease has had serious effects over the world. Indigenous communities of areas where the disease was seen as non-native, like Australia and America were quickly weakened and decimated by smallpox during the colonial period. In history the disease is said to have killed an estimate of four hundred thousand Europeans every year and caused one third of the blindness in the region. Smallpox has currently been eliminated by aggressive vaccination worldwide. The common forms are Variola major and variola minor. The rare forms are malignant and hemorrhagic. It is conducted by either exchange of body fluids or even body conduct with infected persons. The incubation period of the disease may last for up to twelve days before the signs and symptoms can be seen.

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At fast the symptoms may appear to be like a common flu infection. Even though the individuals were vaccinated in many European countries, the disease was still contagious in the continent by the 19th century (Arnold, David, 14). Figure 1 Confirmed cases of smallpox in European countries 1774 to 1900 Host Characteristics 1. Age – smallpox can infect individuals at any age but in most cases, it infects children since those people of old age may have been infected at their young age. Sex – the smallpox can infect persons of either gender. There is no gender differentiation as far as the disease infects any person who has never been infected. Income – rich people tend to be preventive from the infection because they do not mix with many people who may be infected.

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The rate at which high income earners get the disease is too low compared to the poor. Occupation - people who work outdoors are likely to get infected with the disease compared to indoor employees. Individuals who work in large organizations with many employees are likely to transmit the disease compared to small companies with small employees. Education – it does not appear that there is any correlation between the personal education level and chances of getting infected with smallpox. Since this eradication by the world health organization countries have become reluctant and this may create a gap in future outbreaks of smallpox. Areas for Further Epidemiological Study Additional epidemiological data should be collected and analyzed to see how marital status, nativity and educational level influence distribution of smallpox.

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Critical Appraisal of Data It appears that smallpox has generally reduced over the past few years though the infection of this disease had demoralized the world. Those who get the infection tend to be younger individuals who spent most of their time outdoors. The antibiotics do not in any way possible cure the infection but just reduces the pain if the patient for a short time (Arnold, David, 17). Molina, Chai, and David JD Earn. "Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox. " Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12. Overton, Edgar Turner, et al. "Immunogenicity and safety of three consecutive production lots of the non replicating smallpox vaccine MVA: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled phase III trial.

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