How poor childhood brain development influences adult criminal behavior

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Computer Science

Document 1

Some of these include biological risk factors, adverse childhood experiences, negative social environment and substance abuse which also impact on brain development (Walden University, 2019). According to Reavis, et al, (2013) the experiences of abuse, neglect, as well as differences in styles of parenting make up the primary pathways in which the environment influences the development and function of the brain. Therefore, significant exposure to different risk factors such as negative social environment and biological risks which result in poor childhood brain development play a role in determining adult criminal behavior. Childhood Brain Development The brain is an organ of the body that continues to grow until old age. It is important to appreciate that the development of the brain is significantly influenced by the experiences of an individual starting from their childhood.

Sign up to view the full document!

In all these studies have indicated that the experiences that a child is exposed to impacts significantly on how the different parts of the brain develop (Kolb, 2009). In addition, according to Northrop, & Berkowitz, (2015) several factors including environmental, genetic and epigenetic, chronic stress and trauma have a significant contribution to the structure and functioning of the brain. Therefore, early traumatic experiences have the ability to impair the development of the brain during childhood and result in challenges with the functioning of the brain. Northrop, & Berkowitz, (2015) provides that maltreatment and childhood trauma have connections to delinquency and adult criminal behavior. Not only that, cumulative adverse childhood experience have the potential to impact on the mental health and physical disorder of an individual and sometimes lead them to drug and substance abuse which increase their likelihood of engaging in criminal activity.

Sign up to view the full document!

In addition, the plasticity of the brain plays a significant role in determining adolescent involvement in crime. During adolescence period, the orientation of a child increasingly shifts away from the parents and much focus goes to their peers and they become more independent. As a result of this, they begin to treat their peer groups as a new home base as they begin to spend more time with their peers (Goldweber, et al, 2011). This leads to a reorientation to their peer group which creates a set of new activities for the child. In case, the peer is made up of individuals who engage in illegal or criminal activities, the child is likely to find themselves involving in the same activity because they are not under the careful eye of their parents.

Sign up to view the full document!

As a result, there is an increased risk of individuals raised or living in these environments to turn into crime themselves (Hopfer, 2018). Besides, poverty is another key aspect of negative social environment that affects brain development and increases the likelihood of engaging in crime as an adult. For example, in low income areas and communities in which majority of the males are incarcerated, there are fewer father figures and mentors for young people to look up to. Because children grow without father figures, their brains are likely to be configured to follow the paths of their fathers who are in prison (First Five Years Fund, n. d. As such, there is need to take precaution to ensure that children are brought up in ideal environments that ensure they are brought up properly and their brains pick up the right things that would not increase their likelihood engaging in crime.

Sign up to view the full document!

This is a collective responsibility of parents and the society at large. References Drabick, D. A. Kendall, P. Dmitrieva, J. Cauffman, E. Piquero, A. R. Steinberg, L. J. Links Between Childhood Traits and Adult Criminal Behaviors. Johnson, M. H. Haan, M.  Paediatrics & child health, 14(10), 651-652. Miguel, P. M. Pereira, L. O. Pedersen, C. Borenstein, H. O'Campo, P. Linking childhood and adult criminality: using a life course framework to examine childhood abuse and neglect, substance use and adult partner violence.  International journal of environmental research and public health, 10(11), 5470-5489. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www. ncjj. org/pdf/Juvenile%20Arrests%20Bulletins/251861. pdf Reavis, J. Retrieved from https://www. waldenu. edu/online-bachelors-programs/bs-in-criminal-justice/resource/what-influences-criminal-behavior. ZERO TO THREE (n. d).

Sign up to view the full document!

From $10 to earn access

Only on Studyloop

Original template