HYPERTENSION IN THE BLACK COMMUNITY
In spite of this, most patients with elevated blood pressure levels go without being detected and therefore receive inadequate treatment. The proposed study focuses on hypertension in the black community. The study aims at providing knowledge into the causes of the high incidence of high blood pressure among black British in order to help scientists with better treatment methods as well as control mechanisms for hypertension among black people. This study will employ the use of qualitative research methods to collect data that will be used for this study. This will involve the use of interviews on a selected population of black British. A number of racial groups including people of the African descent continue to undergo extreme suffering from most of the variable cardiovascular risk factors.
Hypertension continues to be a popular risk factor that considerably leads to the general perceived cardiovascular mortality. Also, the providers of primary care, including physicians, nurse practitioners must make attempts to overcome any misunderstandings they may have that reducing hypertension is fundamentally more difficult in blacks than in the whites. Thus, they should corporate with the patients to ensure that adequate educate and treatment is maintained for the patients and that they match the current guidelines. INTRODUCTION Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. Previous studies have highlighted the fact that people of the African descent or the blacks are at twice the high risk of suffering from hypertension and the related cardiovascular diseases. The risks for stroke is two times greater for blacks.
Also, the End-stage renal disease associated with hypertension appears to be five times greater from blacks. Even though hypertension affects all fragments of the British population, the rates of prevalence are higher among men and women in the black community. According to a study conducted by Cruickshank (1985) revealed that the high occurrence of hypertension among people of the African descent in the United Kingdom is three or four times more widespread as compared to the British white community. • To investigate the various treatment options and interventions for hypertension and their implications for the black British community. • To investigate how genetics influences hypertension in the black British community. • To investigate the variance in drug response during the treatment of hypertension between the black British and white British people.
METHODOLOGY This chapter will discuss the methods that will be employed when collecting data for the study. This includes search engines and databases, the search limitations and the search process. The research team will obtain their consent before interviewing the participants. The subjects will be approached with a predetermined set of questions that will enable the conversation to evolve based on the response of the participants. Search Engines The involvement of the researcher in the nursing field has played a major role in facilitating the location and identification of quality sources of data for the study. The researcher will use various search engines such as the google scholar to locate case studies and articles that would be useful for the study.
Case studies and research articles will be sampled theoretically since they are considered appropriate for illuminating and expanding relationships as well as logic among various constructs. In most cases, the use of descriptive titles during database searches does not present any problems, and indeed they end up providing rich descriptions of the research studies. But, in the event of a database search, descriptive titles tend to add to the complexity of recognizing qualitative research on a particular topic (Anderson 2010). Another major limitation during the search of the study titles is that authors tend to differ in the way they define concepts. Such discrepancies in the definition of concepts is an important contribution to unsuccessful database searches. Furthermore, a database search that relies on key terms in the study tiles possibly misses numerous publications that might be useful to the study (Evans 2002).
The researcher will then determine the type of the data that he will need to gather for the research and develop data collection forms. The researcher will obtain written consent from the participants before engaging them in the interview process. Patients will be approached in the wards by trained and experienced research assistants and invited to take part in the study. Also, the potential participants will be offered with information sheets to explain the aim of the study and offered with an incentive. Patients that will agree will be escorted to quiet and secluded areas for interviews. In the United Kingdom, a consensus has been reached regarding the prevalence of hypertension which is estimated to be three to four times higher among people of the African origin than their white counterparts (Agyemang et al.
Social and environmental factors linked to hypertension in the black community According to Morenoff et al. (2007), chronic stress associated with the larger social environment is widely considered as a major contributor to the risk of hypertension. Furthermore, there is a long history of interest in the manner in which the residential environment can influence the risk of the cardiovascular system including the risk of hypertension. In the review, social factors such as residing in low-stress areas were linked to reduced blood pressure levels than in high-stress regions. As well, the target organ harm of the blacks is different from that of the white community (Brown 2006). In a study conducted by Akinlua, Meakin, and Freemantle (2017) revealed that a number of the participants held the belief that hypertension could be as a result of genetic causes.
This means that the hypertensive genes get passed down the parents to the children. Also in the study, two participants believed that blood pressure was not hereditary, but people learn certain behavioral trends in a similar manner they handle stress from their parents (Baker et al. Discussion Numerous studies have investigated the various concepts on hypertension in the black community of the United Kingdom as well as other developed countries. A majority of the participants believed that lifestyle such as alcohol, diet, or alcohol could result to hypertension of effect the outcome of treatment of high blood pressure. Also, most of the participants claimed that stress was the leading contributing factor to high blood pressure. Furthermore, lack of enough sleep was thought to be a key factor to high-stress levels which later translated into hypertension.
Such opinions have also been presented in past studies on Africans. However, findings in regards to migration experience and acculturation linked with high blood pressure were not present in the current study as compared to other studies on blacks. The research identified relevant opinions among black hypertensive patients that add to the knowledge of the proper management of the hypertension in this population. As well, it demands additional research to help determine if such opinions are characteristic of this population. To be certain, a significant finding is that within the black community, different opinions in regards to hypertension and people may be holding different opinions at the same time. In future studies confirm this, the implication for practice is that healthcare professionals should strive to obtain the opinions of individual patients and tailor care to suit their needs (Raleigh 1997).
Interestingly, the study revealed that while a majority of people understood that high blood pressure was pronounced by the visibility of symptoms like headaches and palpitations some of them believed that the lack of such symptoms implied the absence of high blood pressure (Cruickshank et al. Proper monitoring, screening, and referral programs have been proven to increase access to health care and the knowledge of hypertension among the minority communities (Flack et al. Strategies that are based on the health-care system may be similarly important in minimizing the differences in hypertension given the dissimilarities in health outcomes which seem to prevail among different racial groups that are secondary to recognized barriers. Furthermore, real approaches that may help to reduce the differences because of the prevailing recognized barriers include cultural proficiency training as well as quality improvement efforts that are based on the quality of data.
In addition, the provision of cultural competency training to the healthcare providers may help improve the quality of health-care combined with patient satisfaction and improved health. The health care system of the UK may utilize large data information technology and electronic medical records to help in reducing disparities in hypertension. Additionally, weight loss management should be an important goal, since it translates into a decrease in blood pressure. Moreover, patients should be advised to engage in a lot of physical activity, quit smoking, reduce their intake of alcohol and always check their cholesterol levels. The prevention, as well as control of high blood pressure in British blacks, is crucial since this population has been observed to have a higher incidence of hypertension than other races.
Also, the risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke When administered as monotherapy, some antihypertensive drugs have been noted to exert a great amount of efficiency in lowering blood pressure when compared with other categories of antihypertensives like ACE inhibitors and B blockers. Therefore, most black patients will need to receive treatment with more than one class of antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure control (Brown 2006). Hypertension continues to be a popular risk factor that considerably contributes to the general perceived cardiovascular mortality. Even though there is an increase in the awareness of hypertension, the black community of the UK remains with a significantly greater occurrence of hypertension when matched to their white counterparts. Moreover, the black British are more likely to maintain poor control in terms of managing hypertension.
Also, some groups in the black community of the UK are less knowledgeable about the treatment and control of hypertension when compared to the British whites. Persistent research in the future, preventative as well as clinical efforts to comprehend and intervene upon the complex factors as to why the disparities in hypertension continue to remain among certain groups is important to help provide specialty care in hypertension. Beliefs about hypertension among Nigerian immigrants to the United Kingdom: A qualitative study. PloS one, 12(7), p. e0181909. Baker, E. H. P. , Cook, D. G. , Persu, A. , Corvol, P. Chen, X. and Wang, Y. Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Circulation, 117(25), pp. Chobanian, A. L. , Jones, D.
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