Inequality between nations Food productions Case study

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Sociology

Document 1

This inequality exists at the intra-national and international scales. Inequality in the availability of food at the international scale is mainly due to the distribution of Earth’s water and land resources in relation to the distribution of human populations. This form of inequality could be redressed or enhanced by human activities including international trade or international migration. Inequality in food availability at the intra-national scale is impacted by patterns of the accessibility of distribution, conflict, and poverty (Carr et al. Inequality in consumption is further determined through individual, household, and community –level factors such as within-household food distribution patterns, lifestyle characteristics, and local food preferences. In general, trade minimizes inequality among nations in relation to the distribution of food production through exporting food from nations having higher per capita dietary energy availability to the nations with lower.

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Whereas the overall impact of trade is inequality reduction, there are also indications of flows in the opposite direction and as a result, lead to increased inequality. According to research, trade of luxury and cash crops often contribute to an increase in inequality while the trade of staple food is often associated with reduced inequality (Carr et al. There is no doubt that in some countries, trade ameliorates or prevents conditions of severe food shortages, but this does not always indicate that trade is ever advantageous. An explanation for this that international trade and domestic production effects on country-level availability of food are not necessarily independent. While nations in regions found in the southern cone of South America, Canada, and Australia have registered highest adoption levels of these resource-conserving practices, other nations in Central Asia, Africa, and China has low adoption (Hanjra, 2013).

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Total factor productivity (TFP) increases due to the use of enhanced agricultural practices. A number of nations including Ukraine, Russia, Indonesia, China, and Brazil have attained high TPF rates. The use or lack of use of these enhanced agricultural practices can partially account for the inequality of food production between nations. Nations investing in technological innovation and research and development with regards to agricultural production have an effective food production system. As more agricultural products, animals, plants, and people move across the border, the risks of the outbreak are increasing. Countries that lack access to services and goods especially in rural areas facilitate the spread of these diseases and pests. Nations in the Middle East, Asia, and Africa have experienced cases of Foot-and-mouth disease and lumpy skin disease, which have been facilitated by poorly controlled movements of a large number of animals (Hanjra, 2013).

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Inequality in food production between countries can, therefore, be determined by the nations’ ability to control trans-boundary diseases and pests that endanger animals and plants. Relating modernization theory and global food production inequality Modernization theory is a perspective of economic and social that explains how different levels of technological development accounts for the global inequality between nations (Ritzer, 2011). In addition, the developed nations provided the underdeveloped country with industrial technology and food production technology in an attempt to close the food production inequality gap. Addressing the inequality in food production between nations There are several ways to eradicate the inequality between nations with regards to food production. One of the ways is to eradicate poverty while ensuring that susceptible individuals delivered from poverty do not fall back into it. Achieving this means looking into inequalities both within and between nations in ownership of assets, in opportunities, an in levels of income (Hanjra, 2013).

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There is a need to improve investment opportunities and income through pro-poor strategies that address the root causes of poverty. Jointly, nations face the challenge of accomplishing an effective and coherent international and national governance which has clear development goals and commitment to attaining them. One vision that goes beyond the divide of developing and developed nations is the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. For all nations, sustainable development is a collective responsibility and universal challenge which, when attained, will lead to equality in food production among nations. References Carr, J. A. Waterloo, Ont. Wilfrid Laurier University Press Hanjra, M. A.  Global Food Security : Emerging Issues and Economic Implications. Hauppauge, N.

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