Marine Ecology Zonal Report

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Ecology

Document 1

Abiotic factors are the non-living things that play a key role in the marine ecology and they include sunlight, air pressure, wind, and water. Marine ecology entails the study of human activities that affect the distribution of marine creatures in an ecosystem. Nevertheless, marine ecology is more complex and involves more activities than just the study of organisms and the factors that have impact on them in a particular environment (Poulin et al, 2016). It is also associated with numerous factors and interconnections, the symbiotic relationship among organisms as well as other factors that are dominant in a particular environment Brown (2016) says that understanding the community of organisms will enable us realize the difference between marine ecology and marine biology. The main difference between these two ecologies is based on the number of organisms that are being studied. Marine biology involves putting focus on behavioral characteristics between organisms that belong to the same species. Organisms belonging to the same species if they can naturally interbreed to produce fertile offspring. On the other hand, marine ecology involves the study of the behavior of one organism and how the behavior of this organism has impact on another organism (Avila, 2017). Aim of the report The purpose of this paper is to elucidate on the marine ecology. It will also aim at explaining the various zones that are present in the marine ecology. The report will include the materials and methods that were used in the collection and the analysis of data. Also, the report will also provide the results of the study and then the discussion so as to create enough understand and to offer the support for the claim.

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Materials and methodology This section will analyze how I carried out my study. It will offer the theoretical analysis of the methods that were applied in writing of the report. It will involve the methods of collecting data as well as the way of analyzing data and the research design. The research involved the various experiments which were conducted in a specified marine ecology (Dreano et al, 2017). I decided to study 4 sections of the Indian Ocean where I collected my data from so as to make an analysis of marine zones. I used surveys and experiments so as to arrive at the same. I had to move around various waters and study marine life and the population of the organisms that were present in the marine ecology. Various samples of marine animals were collected based on their position in the waters in terms of depth.

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The following were the ones that were present in the marine ecology: Pelagic zone This is a zone that means an open sea zone and contains several fish that I discovered as pelagic fish. The zone is divided into the neritic and oceanic zone (Poulin et al, 2016). The neritic zone is that part of the ocean that extends from the mark in the low tide mark to the tide of the continental shelf. It is characterized by a relatively shallow depth that has an extension of around 200 meters. The neritic zone has a nice water that is well oxygenated. After these small animals make their own food, the small animals get food that sustains them. Therefore, this is the zone were primary production takes place. The presence of sunlight is also responsible for the provision of a good range of temperatures for those organisms.

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The animals that I found in this zone are planktons, jellyfish, and seaweeds (Avila, 2017). The second zone is the mesopelagic zone is found beneath the epipelagic zone and is characterized by small wavelengths of sunlight that is not enough for the process of photosynthesis. After this area, we find the continental shelf which is shallow and in the seafloor extension at the horizontal area (Poulin et al, 2016). It forms the shallow margin at the deep sea margin. It is also important to note that this is the most productive zone of the ocean and commercially very important zone. At the bottom, there are fine sentiments like sand and silt were the organisms can rest. I named the zones from zone 1 to zone 6 and the results are shown in the table below Zone Number Number of species present Proximity Rank Diversity Rank Difference Difference squared (d2) 1 12 1 2 -1 1 2 14 2 1 1 1 3 10 3 4 -1 1 4 11 4 3 1 1 5 6 5 6 -1 1 6 8 6 5 1 1 The results above were analyzed using a bar graph as shown in the figure below.

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There is a variation in the number of organisms as a result of the continental shelf. In the ocean, there is a great bizarre organism and fishes that can be found there. Nevertheless, some zones are economically important while others are hidden and no literature exists concerning such zones. Deeper regions are not well endowed with enough sunlight and also, they have very little penetration of sunlight. Finally, the continental shelf is very important because of its higher productivity. Brown, C. J. Harborne, A. R. Paris, C.  Ocean Dynamics, 1-13. Gravem, S. A. Morgan, S. G. Imprint of Climate Zonation on Marine Sediments. In The Sea Floor (pp. Springer International Publishing.

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