Mass extinction of species due to climate change

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Sociology

Document 1

The factors mentioned above are the main causes of species reduction as well as extinction. Lande (259-269) states, the destruction of habitat contributes to the extinction of more than three-quarters of mammals’ in Australia in addition to over half of endangered birds’ species across the world. The population extinctions of mammal species from 1900 to 2015 depicts how the anthropogenic issue is a major concern in the entire process. A sample of 177 mammal species, terrestrial vertebrates are extremely affected. Close to 32 percent out 27,600 vertebrates are declining at an alarming rate. He cites habitat loss, invasive organism, over-exploitation, pollution and climate disruption as the major causes of plants and animals extinction. According to research, there were only 7,000 cheetahs in 2016, African lions dropped by 43 percent since 1993 while the giraffes dropped to 97,000 from 115,000 in 2015. Amphibians dominated the world, but Pangaea has now adapted to different conditions.

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The Pangaea can survive in any continent apart from Antarctica. Most of the species across the world are found in tropical rain forests. Also, acid rains have regional effects on most of the plant communities across Western Europe and the Ecosystem of in Europe (Lande 259-269). Cahill et al. claim an increase in temperature has a negative effect on climate. The proximate factor is one of the leading causes of temperatures extinction which is fundamental in sessile organisms and thermoregulatory ability that differs depending with regions and also time. The effects of temperature are indirect and related to physiological tolerances. The other biotic factor includes species which have a negative interaction with local ones and comprise of the predators, competition, and pathogens. For example, the warming temperatures may accommodate species which have a negative impact on fauna and flora.

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Climate change may create incongruence in interacting species. The phrenological mismatches may happen during different environment temperatures, and in most cases, the situation is not climate influenced (Cahill et al. Urban (571) states climatic factors affect different animal extinction, for instance, North America and Europe were rated as the lowest risks with five and six percent respectively. Invasive species affect native species resulting in unnecessary competition. Therefore, the native species compete with the non-native species for survival. One of the common cases is the birds on the island which occurred when the predators were absent. The decline in birds’ species in Europe on oceanic Island happened after the introduction of mammalian predators (Browning 25-26). Browning (25-26) states the case of North America ecosystem can be linked to poor strategies aimed at sustaining a healthy ecosystem.

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Changes in habitat may have led to dinosaur extinction in Maastrichtian as a result of volcanism. The long-term environmental changes might have hit dinosaur communities in North America however it is not clear how biodiversity through Cretaceous led to dinosaur extinction. It is reported that dinosaur extinction was hasty and therefore there might be a force behind it (Brusatte 11). Climate changes as a result of volcanism affected the dinosaur’s diversity, richness, and community. Beniston (557-568) agrees with other authors by stating that human activities across the world have led to change in the global environment. Technology has paved the way to boost food shelter, water, and the health sector. Famine on the other hand and diseases have been hitting the headlines, the factors mentioned above depend on the environment. However, technology in transport systems such as road, air, and water releases carbon emission which is not friendly to the environment and led to the change of weather patterns.

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The change in climate may lead to the extinction of mammals and plants, but renewable energy strategies for air, road, water and industries can be adapted to minimize on the effects of carbon produced Beniston (557-568). I realized that greenhouses have emerged for a continuous food production process, but the emission of gases affects the environment. International Review of the Red Cross 92. Brusatte, Stephen L. et al. The extinction of the dinosaurs.  Biological Reviews 90.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114. E6089-E6096. Kolbert, Elizabeth.  The sixth extinction: An unnatural history. A&C Black, 2014. Pimm, Stuart L. et al. The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection.  Science344. Urban, Mark C.

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