MOTIVATION TEAM COHESION AND LEADERSHIP IN SPORT

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Sports

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d, p. Learning provides skills and knowledge to athletes believed to be effective. Appropriate lessons from the coaches aimed at reinforcing the required behavior in an athlete based on perceived need can improve the performance of that athlete through behavioral traits change and personality. Moreover, implementing behavioral changes is one key to improving the performance of athletes. The first behavioral change is communication. Communication as a general term is important in the life of an athlete in terms of feedback. According to Caine et al (2016), feedback is one aspect of information that gives an athlete an established and standard performance (p. Reviews from the audience shape athlete’s behaviors as the positive ones make them do better while the negative one’s make them cautious of their actions and how they behave thus keeping them in check. Noting mistakes done by an athlete in the present without focusing on the possibility of more mistakes happening in the future is key. This is the concept of selective attention which is aimed at manipulating the performance of the athlete to deliver desirable outcomes. With the selective attention, it becomes possible for the athlete’s behavior to be changed based on routine relevant cues (Masuda 2015, p. Secondly, the physical, psychological, tactical and technical performance of any athlete all rely on his or her concentration. This being the second concept, concentration depicts who the athlete is during training and even in the actual game. Effective concentration improves performance as it curbs distractions. This is important to the athlete as it keeps their whole system coordinated and focused on one goal which is winning (Caine et al 2016, p.

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This is because concentration not only manipulates the performance but also signals the outcome of the input the athlete is putting into a game. as such, preparing an athlete’s concentration not only keeps them focus but also curbs the development of states such as anxiety. Concurrently, while working with a group of athletes who have the same goal of excelling, associative concept is key. An associative concept involves the coming together of athletes in an attempt to up their game by monitoring their cues, stress and pains for the greater good. With this type of thinking and strategy, their performance can be enhanced as there will be a positive correlation between the ultimate goal and individual focus and behavior towards achieving the goal (Verville & Halingten 2003, p. Arousal Emotions and thoughts determine the psychological function of an athlete as they are linked to anxiety which arouses and activates their nervous system.

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This aspect negatively correlates with an athlete’s performance as it affects their general coordination since their muscle tension is increased. Additionally, these negative emotions that have been activated also result to narrowing attention which draws the mind of the athlete to the environment around them rather than the main agenda thus resulting to poor performance (Ferreira 2007, p. With these two extremes, there is another factor which also define the relationship between arousal and performance which is the sex of the athlete. In regard to female, an arousal in emotions could also result to an increased performance up to a certain point then a dysfunction will be experienced by the athlete which still leads to poor performance. This anxiety state can make an athlete have decreased arousal levels which will ultimately lead to poor performance.

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Thirdly, flow states also arise due to precompetitive state anxiety. This state makes the athlete equate their capability to the challenge ahead of them thus sending the wrong information on the weight of the task (Ferreira 2007, p. Basically, with this type of thinking, the task appears to be easy for the athlete even before they start playing. In the light of this, the athlete loses control of themselves as their psychological, tactical, technical and physical focus are misled thus the poor results trigger some feeling of guilt within the athlete. Once this evaluation is carried out, the attribution can be used by coaches to control performance based on the factor that steered it. With the effective monitoring, the control can be established thus stabilizing the athlete’s performance. An internal outcome motivates an athlete more than an external outcome.

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In other words, athletes who attribute their success to pressure and forces from outside find less fulfilment than those who attribute their success to their personal efforts. These two aspects are key because an outward motivation is subject to change which also means that the performance is subject to change (Kaya 2014, p. Emotions are strongly influenced by the cause of what an athlete wants to believe is the reason for their success or failure. For instance, if an athlete’s goal was to loss 2kgs to become more physically competent but in the process adds weight, they lose confidence in themselves thus becoming emotionally unstable. With the mismatch between the reality and the outcome, emotions get mixed, tracks are lost and the physical performance of the athlete decreases (Masuda 2015, p. On the other hand, when confidence is built and competency attained, the athlete becomes proud of what they have achieved and thus their physical performance also increases.

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Team Cohesion and Leadership Cohesion is important for group variables in sports thus there has been attempts made by athletes and their coaches to facilitate an effective group functioning. Concurrently, the concept of social support is also important for a person in authority to consider. Social supports helps athletes get reviews on their behaviors, physical performance and tactical skills that they need to build up. Moreover, social support also opens rooms for motivation thus enhancing the player’s attribution. Once these two concepts are functioning, locus control becomes possible making the performance outcome to be an optimal one. In addition to that, organizational structure can also facilitate the positive or negative performances based on the environment that the management has created for the team (Verville & Halingten 2003, p. Etnier, J.  L. Barella, L.

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 A. The Inverted-U Relationship between Arousal and Fractionated Reaction Time. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 333-338. doi:10. j. sbspro. Manata, B.  A. Vlachopoulos, S.  P. Van Raalte, J.  L. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 9(5/6), 115-130. doi: 10. Weiner, B. Attribution Theory. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology.

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