Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Philosophy

Document 1

5 million surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures performed in the US. The record was beyond the 2016 cosmetic procedures by 2 percent and, with reference to the data collected in 2000, nearly twice the number of surgical procedures in 2017. 1 2 In fact, the advance in plastic surgery helps people around the world in many aspects. There are two types of plastic surgery: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. There is a wide variety of procedure that encompasses reconstructive surgery. The most common ones are chin surgery, cheek lift, neck lift, breast lift, laser hair removal, and buttock lift. Cosmetic surgery is also called aesthetic surgery. The two types of plastic surgery are predominantly used in America by people to restore their beauty or give themselves a shape of their own desire.

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Despite many controversial issues about it, the patients have ethical rights to use it to seek a better life. The term ‘better life' may sound ambiguous. Surgeons rebuild the body structures and tissues as articulated in the introduction part of this paper. As an addition, when a wound cannot be stitched closed, surgeons use other tissues from the same body or elsewhere to cover the wound. 6 The complicating issue is when a born has to be taken from one part of the body to the other thus calling for plates and screws. Ethical and Unethical Reasons for Reconstructive Surgery Ethics basically are a set of rules and principles that define what is wrong and what is right to do. Considering the uncontrollable health demand to go for the surgery, there are no unethical reasons as to why one should not seek the treatment.

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In case the abnormal structure is left to prevail, the child definitely faces discomfort and isolation in social life. Other causes of deformities which attract surgery are accidents, infection, disease, and aging. Reconstructive surgery not only restores the original appearance but also the function and mobility of the body tissues. Surgeons apply this method in removing skin cancer, treating burns, covering scars and in transplantation of body organs such as ear, nose, and kidneys, to mention but a few. 12 All the uses of reconstructive surgery are purely good for the health (and thus, human life) of human beings. The reasons include; 1) it is meant to improve mental health. Although it is not a serious health problem when it comes to cosmetic surgery, lack of confidence and a stressful life affects the mind.

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thus, there is need to undergo the surgery, 2) it improves appearance thus enhancing self-confidence, 3) after cosmetic surgery, patients often feel included in the society and willing to participate, try new things and open up to social situations. Without self-confidence, an individual will find it difficult to socialize with society members. 16 17 Unethical Reasons For a person who does not accept the way he or she is, cosmetic surgery is not enough and beyond it, there is no more satisfaction. Other risks associated with the surgery include excessive bleeding, fluid build-up which in most cases occurs under the skin, complications related to pneumonia and anaesthesia which may lead to death on the spot, and numbness which may be permanent. Unhealthy Reason of Cosmetic Surgery under Influences of Social Media and Plastic Culture Cultures From a sociological view, a culture is a crucial tool in socialization.

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Culture includes language, norms, beliefs, values, and religion including others21. All the elements of culture affect the behavioral patterns of a society. There are societies which have been used to natural body appearance while others, especially in the developed countries, have been used to artificial body appearance. Yet from another angle, no one wants to be found at the grocery store in sweatpants, similarly, no one wants a gloomy picture to appear in his or her online social platform. In this case, individuals dislike their appearance and go on to look for a surgeon to rectify their body appearance. The fact that men and women do not wish to keep bad pictures on social media is enough to tell that most people who seek plastic surgery are socially influenced to do so.

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23 Medical Ethics in Plastic Surgery A report written in the World Journal of Plastic Surgery (2016) indicated that ‘cosmetic surgery is spread around the world'. 24 Economic development and social-cultural factors have contributed to this phenomenon. It is a medical approach that people must understand before making decisions following their desires. There is no question about the reconstructive plastic surgery because it is purely medical and licit. Raising a question of ethics in a surgical method that opposes death is an indirect way of reducing the meaning of humanity. However, cosmetic surgery is a type of plastic surgery that has ethical critics. Despite the critics, plastic surgery is entirely a voluntary service and it is therefore ethical. "New Statistics Reveal The Shape Of Plastic Surgery".

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