Reasons for developing a welfare state
The issue of the welfare state has been institutionalized in various governments and economies internationally, making it difficult to be removed or ignored. The “welfare State” relies on the acknowledgement of dependency as a measure of social relationship. Theoretically, the ‘welfare state’ is responsible for protecting all the residents of the state at its best possible level (Spicker, 2017). It also helps in the supervision of welfare provision in the entire society as well as regulation and stimulation of alternative modes of providing welfare. However, the basic reasons for its formation vary from one country to another. It benefits citizens based on specific principles, “from the cradle to the grave. ” According to Hall, '”the distinguishing characteristic of the Welfare State is the assumption by the community, acting through the State, of the responsibility for providing the means whereby all its members can reach minimum standards of health, economic security and civilized living, and can share according to their capacity in its social and cultural heritage” (Forder, 1974).
However, formulation of such minimal standards does not serve the purpose because it only assumes that safety is guaranteed for any person who is below a certain social standard and welfare state promises more than this. The Great Depression that occurred during the 1920s resulted in a lot of economic twists in different states exposing most of the citizens in great danger. This depression together with Keynesian economics paved the way for government involvement in saving the lives of people. Further, welfare state promotes a sense of belonging because low-class citizens feel valued in their country through promotion of equality regarding safety, employment, excising of rights and healthcare. Disadvantages The State welfare is associated with dependency and reduced initiatives in some States.
According to his research, UK has a “developing underclass. ” According to him, “the underclass are defined by their behavior. Their homes are littered and unkempt. The charity organizations, just like NGOs help people during natural disasters such as heavy rains or even earthquakes. However, the two have faced a lot of critics because people feel that welfare states cannot be replaced by anything else. 3 Evaluation of changes to the ‘welfare state’ The two scholars-Thatcher and Murray- believed that social challenges could only end if the “golden age” returned when people used to live in conventional families where, “women stayed at home, divorce was not considered, benefits for lone parents were low, and tax allowance for children were paid out. ” Further, they believed that the responsibilities of women in the society and the culture of marriage were crucial to bringing cohesiveness in the community (Oakley, 2012).
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