Sex Crimes and Offenders

Document Type:Coursework

Subject Area:Criminology

Document 1

Cyber Crime- it is any form of criminal undertaking that involves the uses of networks, internet or computers. DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition) - it is an American Psychiatric Association (APA) publication that issues a list as well as a diagnosis formula of all the identified mental health-related disorders 5. Downward Departures- these are the sentences that the judge's issue and are deemed less severe than the sentence recommendation as stated in the guidelines of Federal Sentencing 6. Dual Offenders- this is an individual who commits sexual offense through both child pornography as well as sexually abusing children simultaneously 7. Dynamic (Risk) Factors- this is the elements that do not remain constant throughout the life of a person but rather change with the change in a situation.

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Prurient Interests- to possess or stimulate uncontrolled interests relating to sexual matters 18. Recidivism- a person going back into offensive behaviors, in most cases, after they have received punishment for having performed criminal behaviors Static Factors- these are the elements that do not change throughout the entire life of a person such include their age of first sexual encounter 19. Techniques of Neutralization- these are the justifications or rationales for going against the set societal norms or perpetrating offenses 20. Typology- this is a system of classifying similar observation or people together. People within one group are perceived to be very uniform while groups are very definite 21. The Gross Assault Level- extremely offensive photographs displaying sexual assault that involves either masturbation, oral sex or penetrative sex with an adult involved 10.

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The Sadism Level- it is also known as the bestiality level which is pictures of children being subjected to a thing that implicates pain such as through being bound, tied, beaten or whipped. Also, photographs in which there is involvement of an animal is some form sex acts with children. Krone’s typology of child pornography offending behavior A typology is also known as classification which is used to categorize alike individuals into distinctive categories. Krone has identified several typologies of offending behavior in relation to child pornography. Secure collectors- offenders who actively seek child pornography through networks that are secure. f. Groomer- the child pornography offender who cultivates online relationships with either one or more youngsters and might use pornography in facilitating the abuse.

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g. Physical abuser. Generally, these offenders act from impulsivity and undertake the behavior regularly which in most cases acts as a part of their broader interest in child pornography (Vandiver, Braithwaite & Stafford, 2016). The browsers suitably fit in this category since they gain access to child pornography unintentionally such as through receiving a spam email that contains the link to child pornography sites. However, the offender saves and keeps the pornographic material knowingly. The second typology involves the individuals who access it to satisfy their sexual fantasies about children even though they don’t actually commit the sexual contact offense. According to Krone’s typology, the offenders who fit in this category may include non-secure collectors, fantasy collectors as well as the secure collectors.

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