What is critical infrastructure

Document Type:Coursework

Subject Area:Criminology

Document 1

The federal government have come up with national policy and guiding principles which help in safeguarding critical infrastructures assets. In order to implement these two approaches, there is need of uniting organizations, ensuring that there is clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities and also setting up coordinated and well-understood processes (Bush, 2003). 2- Discuss the National Asset Database and its effectiveness in contributing to Homeland Security issues. National Asset Database has been maintained and developed by the Office of Infrastructure Protection (OIP) which is in the Department of Security (DHS). The database comprises wide range information of individual assets, from dams, nuclear power plants and hazardous materials sites. Examples include Democratic Republic of Congo where Kanila was determined to rule second term which is against the constitution of Congo, he met very severe opposition and violent protests in 2016.

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The other example is South Sudan, which has been in civil war for three years still have multiple conflicts. 7- There are numerous definitions of terrorism. What are the various elements contained in these definitions? Criminal acts, violence, harm, threat, and death 8- Discuss the various ways of defeating terrorism. In your opinion, which method would be most effective in defeating terrorism in the Middle East? -Improved intelligence -Greater cooperation internationally - Setting up policies and objectives which guarantee complete victory over terrorism. Organized crimes are those activities against the law that are organized by a group which is connected in supplying illegal goods and services. Organized crimes can be in form of terrorism, theft in streets, white-collar crimes or gangs.

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12- What are the characteristics of organized crime groups? Distinguish terrorism from normal or street crimes. Characteristics of organized groups Organized crimes involves group of criminals who work in teamwork. They involve planning and arrangements which will result to successful crime activities. Another important difference between street criminals and terrorists is the duration of attacks. Terrorists operate throughout the nations and others internationally while street criminals operated on hideouts of their proximity. 13- What factors have facilitated the growth of transnational organized crime? How? >Globalization, this has given criminals a way to be able to access a large growing economic scale. >Grey and black markets, if the informal economy is not monitored or governed, this allows terrorists to have power over certain markets in the nation.

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>Young, urban, foreign and poor, in the current world increased crime levels is strongly associated with increased number of young people especially in those countries which are developing. They usually give information on which course events will take in future and underscore effects which will occur for the policymakers of US. Military policy makers and senior civilians requests for National Intelligence Estimates. Before the drafting of NIE document, appropriate NI officers develop a concept which is circulated throughout the intelligence community for comments. When the concept paper is analyzed by different agencies of intelligence community they produce initial text of the estimate. The National Intelligence Board which is made up of sixteen intelligence agencies evaluates and approves the document. 18- Compare bacteria, viruses, and toxins in terms of their use as a WMD.

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Describe the constraints on terrorist groups preventing them from using WMDs. In the current, world the use of biological weapons have been used by individuals and not groups. Various types of biological weapons include bacteria, like Q fever and plagues; viruses like hepatitis, influenza and smallpox, toxins such as staff and ricin. They work in contact with the skin and through ingestion through gastrointestinal or inhalation via respiration into the lungs. Various groups such as al-Qaeda have been using internet as a way of attack. 21-Terrorist financing consists of two distinct activities. What are they and how do they operate? How does a "hawala" operate? Money laundering and personal contributions are methods which are used by terrorists to finance their activities.

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Money laundering is through criminal activities such as kidnapping. When they raise funds they use high technology to avoid being detected or tracked. 24- Describe the patterns of immigration into the United States. Distinguish between border security and immigration. Gateway immigration which is evident because of foreign-born population which has gone beyond traditional gates. Physical movement Immobility and mobility Immigration is the process of moving to a foreign country to live permanently while border security means measure which has been set in place to control and regulate countries border entry. 25- Riley describes a new border protection policy consisting of two components. , & Barton, D. Assessing infrastructure interdependencies: the challenge of risk analysis for complex adaptive systems.  International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, 1(1), 108-117.

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