The Impact of Neo-liberalism on Crime and Justice Policy
The neo-liberalism also assumes that many forms of advancement can be achieved by allowing the human being to operate in a more free market. Some of the freedoms include rights for individual property owners as well as the availability of a free market that supports free trade. Many states usually support the idea of Neo-liberalism as it plays a significant role in ensuring both economic and social justice (Cavadino, 2006, pp. Other than the economic contributions, neo-liberalism has played a substantial role on the issues of crime and justice policy in the United States and other parts of the world. Therefore, this paper mainly focuses on discussing the Impact of neo-liberalism on crime and justice policy. As a result, the type of punishment and punishment policies usually vary from one state to another.
Therefore, the type and degree of punishment in one country are different from that of another country. Since the introduction of neo-liberalism in the 1970s, the level of crime and justice policies have also changed significantly. Neo-liberalism has failed to address the issue of unemployment and equal distribution in most parts of the world. As a result, it has led to increased income disparities and high levels of unemployment hence resulting in poverty. According to the two ideologies, criminals and offenders must be punished severely/harshly as a way of controlling incidences of crime. Therefore, harsh punishment is seen as an efficient way of managing crime as well as dealing with various types of criminal activities in the society. Neo-liberalism is linked with the use of harsh punishment such as death penalties in dealing with crime to ensure justice (Cavadino, 2006, pp.
Recent studies have indicated the link between harsher and highly punitive penal policies and neo-liberalism. For example, a comparative analysis involving various states in the United States of America between the years 1975-1995 showed a relationship a decline in welfare spending and high incarceration cross-sectionally and over a period. This may include information about crime and the mode of punishment for various criminal activities. Over the years, there has been an increased flow of information globally relating criminal justice and various forms of punishment for offenders in different states. The exchange of information has led to changes in crime and justice policies as some countries copy the practices of others. For example, the United States has influenced many countries in the development of new strategies to deal with issues of crime.
Some of these include the establishment of privatized prisons as well as the electronic monitoring of criminals (Wacquant, 2001, pp. The growth of globalization has led to increased crime including organized crime and international terrorism. Globalization aims at building the global political, legal, economic and cultural relationship by technological communication development as well as removal of trade barriers. It also requires the formulation of international laws to govern free trade and also ensure the protection of human rights and property. This has therefore led a transformation in the criminal justice policies desired to deal with the various cases of criminal activities. Since the introduction of neo-liberalism in the 1970s, there has been a notable shift in the models of administering justice (Findlay, M.
This will help in changing the behavior of the people hence making them more accountable. Neo-liberal governance also requires that criminals are punished severely for their actions to discourage others from emulating such behaviors. Therefore, this helps in controlling crime in the society. According to research by different authors, this model of governance has helped in creating uniformity in criminal justice among many nations especially in the western communities. This has mainly been contributed by the interaction of various countries leading to the spread of USA punitive penal policies to other nations (Wacquant, 2001, pp. The other strategy for promoting juvenile criminal justice is known as the risk factor prevention. This intervention usually focuses on determining the possibility of harm disorder or any form of misbehavior among the youths.
It helps in determination of any possible criminal acts hence taking the necessary control and preventive actions thus reducing the level of crime rates in the society. A responsibilisation strategy is an indirect form of governance whereby everyone including families, schools, and individuals among other authorities have the responsibility to control and reduce criminal opportunities in the society. Therefore, the government is not directly involved in the prevention and control of crime among members of the community. Some of the policies applied in criminal justice include the use of zero tolerance policy, use of curfews, electronic monitoring of criminals, mandatory sentencing, pre-trial detention as well as the scared straight programme. All these policies have been developed are used by various countries in dealing with the issues of crime to achieve justice for the people.
The policies are widely used and have been transported and spread to many countries in the western societies. The zero-tolerance policy emphasizes on strict adherence to the laws of the nation, and any form of crime is not tolerated at all. Therefore, offenders are given harsh punishment as a way of discouraging crime and unacceptable behaviors in the society. This approach allows both the offender and the victim to participate in the process of seeking for justice and making decisions for further actions (Muncie, 2005, pp. According to the United Nations policy on rights of children. All the children have right to protection, participation as well as the provision of necessary materials. It holds that children have the right to life and protection from any form of discrimination, exploitation, and abuse hence they should receive fairness and justice in the systems of justice.
The policy also states that children youth under the age of 18 years should be treated differently from the adults to prevent long life stigma and promote their dignity. The policies also aim at ensuring that the rights of children are protected. Many countries have also established corrective centers and rehabilitation facilities for young offenders. This helps in preventing youth crimes as well as reducing the incidences of crimes among young people. The youth offenders are supposed to be subjected to a fair and just trial that is consisted of their rights (Muncie, 2005, pp. In conclusion, neo-liberalism has greatly impacted on crime and justice policies. and Dignan, J. Penal policy and political economy. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 6(4), pp. Findlay, M. The globalization of crime: understanding transitional relationships in context.
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