The life and contribution of Muhammad Anwar Sadat to peace and human rights
In his reign, he served as a vice president twice and after that taking over the mantle of leadership from him in 1970. He was able to change the trajectory of Egypt under his rule. He was able to abandon the political and economic tenets of the Nassrian rule by instituting the multi-party democratic system and by launching the Iftah economic policy that was largely lauded for transformation it had in the country. He was the country's president during the period of Yom Kippur War that saw Egypt fight with Israel to control the Sinai Peninsula region which had been occupied by the Israeli since the six days of the war in 1967. Engaging in this war with Israel a perceived enemy of the Islamic nations made him a hero.
One of his brothers served in the army and was later killed in the war in 1973. The origins of his father were in upper Egypt whereas his mother is said to have origins in Sudan. Anwar graduated from the military academy in 1938 and designated to serve in the Signal Corps. In the army, he was posted to serve in Sudan in a period where Egypt and Sudan existed as one country. It was in the army that he met Gamel Abdel Nasser together with other junior officers. He was elected the secretary of the National Union. He was later appointed the vice president and the member of the presidential council. His presidency Sadat replaced Nasser in 1970 following his demise in office.
His term in office was seen as a short-term thing since many people saw him as the puppet of the former president and thus the supports of Nasser administration saw him as someone they would manipulate easily. He, however, broke this narrative by making astute political moves that saw him be a leader in his right. The secret police were hated for its role in the violation of human rights and the fact that they convicted people without a right to fair play. This saw his popularity rise. The Soviet military was also removed for its role in corrupting the military. Sadat in move to prepare himself to attack the Israeli, cleaned up the military system and got rid of people he perceived were corrupt and who were no in support of his regime.
The fight for Suez Canal In October 1973, Sadat started the war with the Israeli forces that occupied Egyptian peninsula. The two nations agreed on the tern of ceasefire and peace was maintained. However this was to be short-lived, the Israeli military recovering from the shock of their impending defeat started to surround the Egyptian army. In a period of three, they had surrounded the army. This drew a lot of tension in the world and especially tension between the two superpowers. Measures had to be taken against this growing concern, and soon a cease-fire was declared in a bid to end the war. The Vatican endorsed his peace initiatives and suggested that the peace initiatives should also include a just way to deal with the issue of the Palestinian state.
To achieve peace, Sadat has been said to use the media to promote his purposes. Sadat in media reports showed how significant peace initiatives were. He claimed that he had the secrete conversation with the united states to be able to pressurize the Israeli to withdraw their forces from the Sinai region. This move was controversial however since it included leaking of secrets and the country was in a state of war. This was the great step in making peace with the nation. In an official state visit, Jerusalem, he presented his views to the nation on how a comprehensive peace deal would be developed and agreed upon by both countries. In his presentation, he highlighted that there was a need for peace between the two countries and that God helps him in achieving this goal.
A peace treaty was in the long last signed on March 26, 1979, in Washington DC by the Israeli prime minister and Anwar Sadat. The accords that led to this treaty are referred to the Camp David Accords. He faced critics that by signing the agreement, he was threatening the unity of this by putting forth the interest of the Egyptians for the sake of the interest of the Arab nation. Israel was largely viewed in the Arab world as an enemy because of its religious differences. Thus, Sadat was faced with the choice of either making peace with a Zionist entity or collaborating with his Arabian colleges in making sure that they crushed the enemy at hand. His peace moves however in the United States earned him a peace award known as the Prince of peace by Pat Robertson.
Fight for peace, and human rights always come with a cost, and to Sadat, this cost came when his country was suspended from the Arabian League, and the headquarters of the league moved from Cairo and relocated Tunis, Tunisia. At the end of the war, Iran in a collaborative effort with Egypt embarked on a plan to invest on the Suez canal and ease the effects of war as well as providing gains for the two countries. The Iranians in a wild attempt allowed facilitated the evacuation of the Israeli forces from the Suez region. This they did by giving the Israeli oil in the Iranian territories that would replace the oil that they would leave in the region. This would be only achieved in the condition that the Israeli would be able to move from the Egyptians territories.
These efforts by the Shah to improve his relationship added to his connection with Egypt. The Camp David Accord, however, was the key thing that caused his downfall. People and especially the radical jihadist in his rule viewed his decisions as paramount to honoring and serving the Israeli religion and culture. The Egyptian Islamic Jihad, in particular, is said to be behind the revolution and assassination. The group is said to have collected weapons early enough and was waiting for the right moment in which they would attack the president and bring to an end the current existing orders. The chief strategist for the groups explained that the main strategy behind the coup would be to first group some members of the military who would be used in the attempt to capture and then followed by killing off all the leaders of the country.
This consisted of the country's vice president. This assassination was carried forward following approval for such an assassination by Omar Abdel. The perpetrators of this act were judged, and on being found guilty, they were executed by the members of the firing squad. Reference Bourne, P. G. Leading by biography: Towards a life-story approach to the study of leadership. Leadership, 1(1), 13-29. Reich, B. Ed. Political leaders of the contemporary Middle East and North Africa: a biographical dictionary.
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