Aspirin and Cardiovascular Diseases

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Nursing

Document 1

The objective of this paper is to review the mechanism of aspirin therapy and quantifiable previous action for correlation in dosage, safety, efficacy of aspirin in the local, state, and national levels. Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD), entails stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) as the prevailing components, is the leading killer disease in the developed countries and its rising as one of the leading cause of death in the world. World Health Organization (WHO) gives an estimate of the annual global mortality to escalate up to 25 million by 2030, of which 80 percent will happen in developing countries. This alarming and potentially avoidable trend result from increase in risky lifestyle trends such as obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity in both the developing and developed countries.

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The most widely used drug in the world is aspirin , where in 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) estimated about twenty percent of adults in USA take an aspirin daily or in any other day of the week. While such patients are helped with rescue procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention, in order to bring stability in event of acute case, aspirin therapy comes in and may help in preventing a subsequent CVD attack. The second International Study of Infarct Survival Trial (ISIS-2) demonstrated the benefit of aspirin in intervening in reduction in mortality levels arising from CVD and relapse events after attack from an acute myocardial infection (MI). 17,000 patients spanning in over 417 hospital participated in the trial and enrolled in the study after suspected acute MI happening within 24 hours.

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The patients were randomized and received a one-hour streptokinase intravenous infusion, one-month intake of 160mg/day aspirin (enteric-coated) and in some either treatments or neither of them (Ittaman, VanWormer & Rezkalla, 2014). The administering of aspirin brought immense benefits to the patients where there were reported reductions in non-fatal reinfarction stroke, all-cause fatality, as well as 5-week vascular impermanence. Craven conducted trials informally of preventing MI using aspirin in patients aged between 45-65 years and he received positive outcomes and recommended aspirin therapy in primary intervention of CVD (Ittaman, VanWormer & Rezkalla, 2014). Since the works of Craven, subsequent trials have assessed the benefit of aspirin therapy in primary intervention, with the role remaining controversial in Europe due to the side effect of potentially increasing major bleeding.

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Due to this, around 9 trials have been done evaluating the benefit of aspirin. The trials are a primary tool of intervening the various CVD events with the results published between 1998 -2010. The subjects included a mix of patients with healthy life, those perceived to have heightened CVD risk based on symptoms of atherosclerotic ailment, existence of diabetes mellitus. Putting into consideration the role of aspirin in major bleeding, physicians must pay attention to their work of identifying and evaluating the potential benefit and harm in cases where there is risk of excessive bleeding in individual CVD patients (Nansseu, & Noubiap, 2015). Aspirin and Gender Differences There exists a known epidemiology in the vascular events of both genders. Men are at more risk and prone to MI and stroke, yet women have a high probability of dying from these events compared to men.

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Meta-analysis therefore suggests that there exist differences in gender concerning the administration and effects brought by aspirin therapy while countering the various cardiovascular diseases, where men are at lower risk of MI and women at reduced stroke of stroke. The guidelines of using aspirin take into consideration this factor during usage of aspirin therapy. • If there is a positive expectation that after taking, a prescribed action the negative health condition will be avoided. In our example, use of condoms will prevent contracting HIV. • If the person can take a prescribed action without seeking help or encountering difficulties, (i. e. he/she is confident in using a condom with confidence and in a comfortable manner) (Lodyga, 2013). They will provide psychosocial support and other form of social support that will enhance the functioning of the subjects to ensure a moderate study is performed.

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Social workers will also help in ensuring strict adherence to the ethical requirements of conducting a fair research study. Such guidelines include obtaining a written consent of the participant authorizing his/her participation in the study. Social workers will also help in keeping the identity of the participants anonymous and confidential as tight as possible. Resources needed Based on the differences in their study objective, each research question has its own resources required. Later they will provide training and education. The general nurses and physicians will also offer prescription to the identified patients on best ways of taking aspirin in low dosages. One clarification is that patients who fail to qualify for the study will also be prescribed on taking the aspirin therapy.

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