Causes of White Collar Crime

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Sociology

Document 1

These types of crimes include embezzlement, fraud, insider trading, identity theft, money laundering, forgery, and bribery (Paul and Niehoff, 2001). The research question that is guiding for this essay is “What causes white-collar crime?" the study will use eight academic sources and one case study to support its stance. The arguments section is structured with keen relevance to the need and thrust of the study since it is designed to maintain the coherence and flow of the survey, which will help the reader understand the arguments. The cases of different scholars and their studies are discussed in a comprehensive manner. The reviews are well incorporated and linked in a way that the flow of the study should be maintained and the convenience of the reader is also considered. Even though the first two sources are interlinked and overlapping, they are not identical making both of them important to justify and make the research comprehensive. The third study is specific and contains only the effects of social concern on white-collar crime. The fourth study discussed the environmental and personality aspects primarily as the causes of the offense. The fifth study focused on the impact of social structures as a motive to increase the white-collar-crime. The rest of the studies are used to endorse different factors in the argumentation section since they overlapped all of the studies and used as cross-references. Case Study and Its Relevance The case study selected for argumentation is about the ill-reputed white-collar criminal and the former Tyco CEO L.

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Dennis Kozlowski. James William Coleman analyzes the causes of white-collar crime while addressing the research question “What would lead someone to do the kinds of things Kozlowski did?” (Coleman, 1987). Coleman addressed a similar research question as the one directing the current study thus making the 1987 case study more relevant in answering this research question. Sociologist Edwin Sutherland also analyzed the possible causes of the white-collar crimes in 1939 (Coleman, 1987). Coleman investigated all the possible aspects of the crime, which can be well incorporated in this study given that the research question and background of the two studies are identical. Argumentation Causes of White-Collar Crime The study “ON THE CAUSES OF WHITE‐COLLAR CRIME” explores the possible causes of the white-collar crimes (STEFFENSMEIER, 1989). This study is entirely relevant to the current research question due to the indication of possible causes of white-collar crime.

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He uncovers several possible reasons for the white-collar crimes. Personality is an important factor, which includes age, sex, and race aspects (STEFFENSMEIER, 1989). Secondly, some of the employees may be adventurous and find it an adventure to challenge and overcome the system and its limitations. Additionally, the misperception of the white-collar crime makes it more favorable and adaptable for most of the criminals. The violence and lack of real victims, low level of detection and penalties results in misperception about the white-collar crime (Paul and Niehoff, 2001). Also, the employees may consider that there are no chances of advancement in a company, which may frustrate them since the company limits their ability to grow. Consequently, they find it better to engage in the white-collar crimes under the motives of making money for themselves (Stotland, 1977).

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The stance is also endorsed by Lugo (2013) who further adds that it is the personality and the social norms and beliefs, which can be the possible causes of the white-collar crimes. Empathy was found indirectly related to the embezzlement and shoplifting which may be the possible causes of the white-collar crimes. On the other hand, empathy was detected with moderate effects on the low self-control on credit card fraud. The paper showed mixed results and called for the further researches on the social concerns and aspects of the white-collar crime (Craig, 2017). Personality and Environmental Factors of White-Collar Criminals Drew Feely (2006) conducted a study in which he discussed the causes of the white-collar crime with respect to personality and environment. Some of the corporate leaders establish highly centralized structure in the organization, which prevents the employees and stockholders from knowing about the illegal activities and the mismanagement of the company’s funds (Drew, 2006).

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Overall, Drew Feely focused on the environmental and personality factors, which cause the white-collar criminal activities (Drew, 2006). White-Collar Crime and Social Structure The study “White-Collar Crime and Social Structure” discussed the role of social structure in the white-collar crimes. The study found a clear relation between the origin and function of social norms in the white-collar crimes (Aubert, 1952). Aubert found that the norms, believes and traditions also played an essential role in the determination of the white-collar crimes. The criminals are encouraged to commit such crimes because its impact does not appear immediately. These crimes threaten the sustainability of companies, organizations, societies and governments (Stotland, 1977). The malpractices of white collar-criminals manipulate the economies of the affected countries. The less and hidden nature of the crime makes it more comfortable and adoptable by criminals which should be efficiently discouraged (Paul and Niehoff, 2001).

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Similarly, these crimes hurt the reputation of the companies, organizations, institutes and societies. Consequently, perpetrators find it better and safe to commit white-collar crimes under the motive of making money.   References Alalehto, T. Economic Crime: Does Personality Matter? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(3), 335-355. doi:10. x03047003007 Aubert, V. The Effects of Social Concern on White-Collar Offending.  Deviant Behavior,38(7), 837-854. doi:10. Feeley, D. Personality, environment, and the causes of white-collar crime.  Self-Control, Attitudinal Beliefs, and White-Collar Crime Intentions. Paul, R. J. Niehoff, B. P. On The Causes Of "white-Collar" Crime: An Assessment Of Hirschi And Gottfredsons Claims.  Criminology, 27(2), 345-358. doi:10. j. tb01036.

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