Child Sex Trafficking Emerging Social Issue
5 million trafficked persons. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons defines human trafficking as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of person, using threat, force or other forms of abduction, coercion, fraud, abuse of power, deception or position of vulnerability. Also may be of getting payments or achievement of the consent of a person having control over another person, for exploitation. As per the protocol, trafficking includes the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. On the other hand, Sex trafficking is defined as the "recruitment, transportation, and harboring" of another person for prostitution, pornography, or other commercial sexual activities.
United States federalism has enacted human trafficking as an illegal activity. The Congress in the recent past has been made aware of the concern of the increasing numbers of trafficked children across the country for commercial sex. Under federal law and the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, child sex trafficking is a criminal offense even if there is no movement out of the community or also if the child presents self as a responsible adult as long as he or she is below 18 years of age. Determine the exact numbers of trafficked persons is hard by the challenges of defining the diverse populations. Majority of data on child sex trafficking is drawn from the federal human trafficking task forces, but it is still not an accurate reflection of the real numbers of persons trafficked (Hodge, 11, 2014).
According to Macy et al. (66), child sex trafficking is driven by demand and supply. In regions where there is much demand for sex, there will be high demand for the "victims" f trafficking hence need to higher amounts which imply that there will be higher chances of trafficked persons. In most cases, the presence of male persons drives up demand for illegal sex and other social vices like prostitution. For example, in areas undergoing intensive infrastructural development like construction of highways, commercial bridges or regions with heavy military presence predominated by males drives demand for such illegal acts up. The traffickers in this try to use their bright dreams of making a lot of money in a short while and living large to seduce them into the practice.
It is through these enticements that the children recruited into practices like child prostitution and pornography. The children at this age are also vulnerable to manipulation owing to their limited real-life experiences, inability to control desire impulses and incapacity to analyze risks and benefits in complex situations. It is also at this period when adolescence is setting in, and they are learning about their sexuality and a=making adjustments in their environments and bodily changes (Winterdyk &Phillip, 7). Macy et al. In some areas in Africa, socialization and female prejudice have been highlighted as fundamental causes of the human trafficking thrive across the Sahara and domestically (Efrat, 49-53). Previously perceived that, only female gender is more threatened by the prevalence of human trafficking.
More so, there is more attention placed on girls and women as they are most affected as per the available statistics on the issue. Females are also the ones who are more vulnerable to intimidation by the traffickers; there is also a public denial that male-to-male sex is on the rise as well as less screening for boys. The number of boys caught up in the activity has been on the increase as evidence suggests that they are less likely to notice victimization or the public does not often view specific incidences happening on the male gender as victimization. TVPA is involved in the identification and protection of victims, investigation, and prosecution of traffickers and training law enforcers and the public on measures of identifying instances of human trafficking.
The concerned state department has come forward to seek for increased personnel and financial support for victim's services to improve on the response, coordination and increase screening for identification of trafficked persons, both adults, and children (Albonetti, 183). The Trafficked Persons Protocol of 2000 recognizes that male demand is a significant contributor to child sex workers. To curb the menace, the protocol made the federal punishment of human traffickers more severe. Before the act came to life, sentencing for human trafficking was a mere ten years' imprisonment and possibly fining (Efrat, 38). It is shown that a nation like Sweden has created a zero-tolerance law that prohibits any form of sex trafficking and prostitution. Sweden enacted stringent legislations and anti-trafficking campaign aimed at education and creating awareness on the risks of traffickers and solicitors.
Through such moves, the numbers of human traffickers and solicitors declined. In the same way, the number of prostitute's decrease by nearly half. The legislation made the solicitors and buyers more afraid of transacting in purchase and transport of prostitutes and trafficked persons. The practices in the juvenile systems may inhibit a child victim’s access to critical services, which may lead to the development of trauma or reentry into acts of child prostitution. Medical health practitioners in their part ought to ensure even in the practice of law or policy implementation, the child is still a victim of circumstances and that he or she needs proper psychosocial support. Clinicians are therefore key in identifying the critical reasons why the child is involved in child prostitution or the circumstances leading to being caught up in the wave of child trafficking (Ottisova et al.
Winterdyk and Philip (8) assert that on ascertaining the circumstances within the trafficking scenario, medical practitioners can offer referrals to drug testing, HIV and AIDs testing and psychological support structures. Including child advocacy in intervention would help in the provision of critical services like forensic interviews, behavioral health interventions, and anogenital examinations. In another way, even if the child victims are successfully identified, it may be difficult for them to come forward as witnesses or offer the need cooperation in the investigation as they too may be charged with a crime committed to them (Macy & Laurie, 64). Furthermore, with the risk of deportation, the TVPA allowed trafficking victims to remain in the country to assist in the prosecution of their traffickers. In addition, state laws that interfere with the initiative of allowing victims to continue in the nation become extremely detrimental to investigating this crime.
The process of examining child sex trafficking is also inhibited by general public attitudes as well as the attitudes of the legislators (Hodge, 146). In developed nations like ours, both the authorities and the people or the citizens view child sex trafficking as a social issue in developing countries thus failing to place weight on control of the matter (Greenbaum et al. "Global efforts against human trafficking: The misguided conflation of sex, labor, and organ trafficking. " International Studies Perspectives 17. Goldberg, Amy, and Jessica Moore. "Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking. " Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics 27. Kotrla, Kimberly. "Domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States. " Social work 55. Lind, Amy, and Marianne H. Marchand. " Sociological Perspectives 59. Ottisova, L. , et al. "Prevalence and risk of violence and the mental, physical and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: an updated systematic review.
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