Compare and Contrast major aspects of criminology

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Criminology

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I also certify that this project paper has not previously been submitted for assessment in any other unit, except where specific permission has been granted from all unit professors involved, or at any other time in this unit, and that I have not copied in part or whole or otherwise plagiarized the work of other students and/ or persons. Name……………………………………………. Date…………………………… Signature………………… Table of Contents Elements of deviant and abnormal behavior 1 Major theoretical factors and forces assumed to cause crime 3 Impacts of crime on persons and property. Extent of crime in the United States. Ramifications of violent crimes, the career criminal and organized crime 9 The concept of victimless crimes. References 12 Elements of deviant and abnormal behavior Deviance in regard to the culture norms means away from the normally accepted behaviors by a particular society. The behavior that violates social norms or the expectations is considered to be abnormal. Also, it can be defined as the deviation from socio-cultural norms, not statistically ones. In this definition, abnormality is considered to be when one does violates behaviors that most consider proper. For example, not shaving, not going to church, and so on, would be considered abnormal depending on the society (Bridges, 1930). Abnormal behavior is any behavior that deviates from the central tendencies, like the mean as an example. According to this definition, then it is worth noting that abnormal behavior is any kind of behavior that is statistically deviant. For example, if a lot of people smoked and you are the only one among them who does not smoke, then not smoking would be considered to be abnormal (Bridges, 1930).

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There are four elements of deviant and abnormal behavior; The first element of deviant and abnormal behavior is that the victims are not always necessary. This is because many acts of deviance are victimless. For example in American society deviant behavior include prostitution, gambling, pornography, sodomy, euthanasia and substance abuse. There is also derivative, social and moral harm. Saying that deviant behavior is victimless does not mean that most acts of deviance do not involve victims or even constitute a clear and present danger to them. Many of them such as interpersonal violence, suicide and drug related behaviors greatly affects the victims (Felson, 1998). The second element of deviant and abnormal behavior is that it is not a numerical issue but rather a moral, ethical and cultural matter. Another example is where some societies consider excessive drunken being okay but not during the Easter period (Felson, 1998).

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The fourth element of deviant and abnormal behavior is an important closely related point that what constitutes directly or indirectly to deviant behavior, as opposed to conforming or rather the acceptable behavior in the society, this depends on the cultural definition of the situation. In other words, different circumstances play the key role in determination of whether or not a particular set of behaviors are considered deviant and treated as such. This is one of the reasons why the cultural context in which behaviors occur must be well decided. The unfortunate thing with it is that, it is actually very easy to condemn that it is the case in understanding it. Here, Robert Hare identified the mechanism and made a classification of the psychopaths (Gottfredson, 1990). The sociological theories of crime began in the early 19th century and it continues up to date.

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These theories of crime are concerned in making research on social as well as cultural factors that lead to criminal behavior. The structural theoretical approach stated clearly that certain groups of people within a society have less opportunities in achieving the goals that are most valued in that society. Society makes a demand that people needs to reach social respectable goals but acceptable methods that are necessary in accomplishing those goals are hard to comply with thus making is often unreachable in such a way. In general, it was formally through that physical attributes were passed down from parent to the child. It was also thought that the risk committing crimes also are passed drown from parents. Several early biological theories of crime were focused mainly on the heredity of crime and that is what made rather quick assumptions about the research findings (Robb, 2002).

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Impacts of crime on persons and property.   Crime have impact on the victim of the crime, the family of the victim, other people around the victim and also their property. This in most cases causes the lack of sleep due to flashbacks to the criminal offence which he or she had committed. Psychological effects can also lead to disease such as the post-traumatic stress disorder. PTSD). The victim also develops the feeling of anxiety. This is caused by shock that such a thing happened and worries about repeating the same and thus a feeling of loss of trust in one’s community and also the society at large (Shapland, 2007). This can happen through using their resources to pay for the loss which might have been incurred by the crime. This can also involve selling of the property so as to get money.

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The family members and also the people who are close to the victim may have psychological effects which can last for a very long period of time. They may develop PTSD and this will lead to usage of more money since psychological aid can be needed (Shapland, 2007). People can also be emotionally affected. The statics can also be found in the report known as the national crime victimization surveys which are prepared by the Bureau of justice statistics.   In addition to the primary Uniform Crime Report known as Crime in the United States, the FBI publishes annual reports on the status of law enforcement in the United States.  In these reports the definitions of specific crimes are considered standard (Fischer, 2012). In accordance to the FBI, index crime in the United States include property crime and violent crimes.

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In violent crimes there are four offences which are murder and non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery and aggravated assault. In 1994, the President Bill Clinton signed the violent crime control and law enforcement act into the law. This act facilitated over $30 billion in federal aid was spent over a six-year period. This was significant since it helped in to improving the state and local law enforcement, prisons and also the crime prevention programs.  Proponents of the law where the president is included were leading contributors to the sharp drop in crime which took place throughout the 1990s. There are some critics that have dismissed the act as an unprecedented federal act which is just a critic. According to research that was conducted, there are several traditional as well as non-traditional organized criminal activities for the youth.

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Also, this research explores the ramifications of organized crimes on the public perception, vulnerable youth populations and also police resource allocation both the supply and demand reduction measures put in place. The ramifications of organized crimes also is very dependent on the area in which this crimes are committed in. For instance, depending with the area in which these organized crimes by the youth are carried out, then some of the ramifications would be issues related to public perception and the collection of appropriate data regarding that area and the incidences of crimes occurring. An ethnographic approach could also easily help in expanding the way we understand some of the ramifications of organized crimes (Elizabeth, 2003). This class of crimes includes; weapon charges, second-degree manslaughter, burglary, robbery among other such crimes. Class D and F felonies have ramifications of up to 7 years imprisonment.

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These crimes include crimes such as; second-degree assault or rape charges and the reckless assault of child. The final class of violent crimes includes crimes such as sexual abuse and fourth-degree aggravated sexual abuse. Class E violent crimes has ramifications of 4 years imprisonment (Elizabeth, 2003). There is one type of Victimless crime. This type is the moral crimes where a particular illegal act has some relationship with the morality or norms which are set by the society. For example Homosexuality between consenting adults, can be considered as a victimless crime on the grounds that it violates common decency laws. Another example of crimes under this type are the crimes against the state, such as tax frauds, not carrying an ID, carrying a gun without license (Reiter, 2007). Adultery is also another example of moral crime under victimless crimes.

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Felson, Marcus. Crime and Everyday Life.  Thousand Oaks, Calif. Pine Forge Press. Robb, D. M. Van Kesteren, J. N, & Smit, P.  Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective: Key Findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS. The Hague, The Netherlands: Boom Legal Publishers. Roeder, Oliver K. et al. What Caused the Crime Decline?".  Brennan Center for Justice. Elizabeth A.  Journal of Law and Policy.

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