Contribution of the human resource in the workplace

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Education

Document 1

According to Fitz-enz (2009), human labor in the workplace can be categorized into four predominant categories; innovators, early adopters, the pack, and problems. In an effort to increase the performance of each of these categories, the management undertakes training programs. These programs focus on improving the efficiency of each individual employee in order to boost the overall productivity of the firm while at the same time keeping the cost to benefit ratio within tolerable limits. Currently, the management is reluctant to approve of any activity that does not actively result to cost minimization and resource maximization. Any cost incurred in the workplace ought to be sufficiently justified in financial terms. Any proposed activity which lacks a quantifiable value is perceived as an option and not a necessity thus it is not prioritized (IP et al. Training programs are necessary. However, in order for the management to evaluate their impact on the workforce, it is vital that the training programs are evaluated. Evaluation is also done to justify the cost and resources required to facilitate the training programs. Different training evaluation models have been developed. Though the approach of each model differs from the other, the end goal is the same; to justify the cost of training. Some of the models include the Kirkpatrick's model, the ROI approach, Kaufman's model, Anderson's value of learning and Brinkerhoff's Success case among others (Philips and Philips, 2016). A common practice is to compare the efficiency of a group both before and after the training or comparing the performance of a trained group and another untrained group.

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The untrained group acts as a control group for purposes of comparison. In developing the most appropriate evaluation model, businesses are faced with a plethora of challenges. The first challenge is the cost involved. Employee training programs require significant financial support from the entity. For instance, in 2011 United States businesses spent a record $172 billion to train their human labor (Cairns, 2012). The second challenge is measuring the impact of the training in monetary terms. In some cases, the effect on the employees is indirect hence it may prove difficult to quantify in monetary terms in the short-term. The objectives of this training included; understanding the importance of effective feedback, understanding how to use an appropriate feedback framework in both formal and informal setups, learning how to use descriptive language in feedback delivery, understanding the fundamental features of effective feedback and approaches of providing effective feedback in real situations.

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The course outline was comprehensive and highly structured and comprehensive. The first agenda was to elaborate on key definitions commonly used in delivering effective feedback and also used for the rest of the training. In fulfilling this agenda, the participants were also exposed to a variety of setups requiring feedback and how this would be achieved. Next, the participants were taken through the art of effective communication in connection to giving appropriate feedback. Next, the participants were coached on how to receive feedback graciously. For there to be effective feedback, both parties ought to be objective. The receiving party needs objectivity to be able to receive and respond to the feedback appropriately. The issuing party, on the other hand, requires objectivity to ensure the feedback is honest and appropriate. The final session involved exposing the participants to different situations from which they were expected to apply all the skills learned during the training.

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Numerous training and evaluation designs have been developed. Each of these designs is unique in its approach to the evaluation in general. Some of the approaches, for instance, the Kirkpatrick's model, are structured into distinct levels while others, such as the ROI approach, involve a single step. The choice of the design is influenced by the nature of training under consideration, the type of information required and available and the suitability of the approach to the situation in general as well as personal preference. Irrespective of the approach, the end goal is to justify the cost of the training using realized and prospective benefits accrued by the entity following training. The value obtained is an indicator of the actual and anticipated benefits and utility of the training program to the entity.

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The ROI approach is a common strategy for evaluating returns obtained from investment activities in the entity. According to Zamfir (2016), shareholders and the management are conversant with the application of this method. From its repeated use over time, the senior management has successfully mitigated any limitations and developed mechanisms of increasing its accuracy. Thus, in using this approach, the management would be able to not only reduce the time spent in the evaluation but also be able to optimize its accuracy using strategies that have been proven to work. To obtain this data, two approaches would be used. The first approach is to obtain the performance of the participants before the training and after the training. This data would be sourced from the pre and post-tests administered to the respondents. The second approach would be to assess the indirect benefits accruing from the training.

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This data would be obtained from questionnaires issued to the respondents. In some cases, top management has been known to impede training evaluation. The reluctance may be based either on lack of adequate knowledge of the importance of the training, or lack of co-operation. Lack of co-operation may be triggered by the fear of negative outlook on the part of the management should the ROI turn out to be negative. The top management may also compromise the evaluation by limiting the evaluation resources. If the resources required are not availed, the accuracy of the ROI cannot be guaranteed. The absence of motivation may significantly inhibit successful translation of these skills. In such a case, an ROI does not provide a true reflection of the returns on investment. For this reason, it is a requirement for the evaluator to devise a strategy of eliminating the effect of these external factors or compensating for them in the evaluation.

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The ROI technique also faces the challenge of determining the costs to include in the computation. In facilitating the training program, the entity may allocate and spend finances in different ways. In the presentations, the focus would be on the ease of evaluation, the availability of the required data and the precision of the values obtained. The presentation would also entail a summarized and comprehensive analysis of these different strategies in order to depict their strengths and weaknesses. Using this approach, the presentation would successfully inform the client on the availability, features, and applicability of each of these strategies. The presentation would also highlight the reasons why the preferred model was not appropriate for the case. To provide further guidance, a comprehensive analysis of the factors to consider in selecting a training evaluation model would also be included in the presentation.

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The ROI approach to training program evaluation is preferable because of its precision, ease of application and minimal cost of execution. The choice of the training evaluation approach may however vary depending on the nature of the training program and individual preferences. Resources Cairns, D. Overcoming the Challenges to Developing an ROI for Training and Development. Employment Relations Today. Professional Safety, vol. Issue 4, p 48-52 Mavin, S. Lee, L. Robson, F. The evaluation of learning and development in the workplace: A review of the literature. Routledge. Sachdeva, S. ROI of Training and Development Programmes: Challenges and Developments. The Standard International Journal, vol. Issue 6 Singh, M.

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