Criminal justice theory and policy recommendation

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Criminology

Document 1

Multiple theories exist which, explains what causes an individual to engage in criminal behavior that includes the biological explanation, sociological reasons, and psychological factors. The biological theory of criminal justice is strong aspects that explain criminal justice by viewing crime as a form of illness that is a result of pathological factors that are precise to specific individuals. These theories assume that some individual is born as criminals and they differ biologically from non-criminals. According to the theories, the individuals are born criminals have physical and mental inferiority that makes them unable to learn and adhere to rules which, results in criminal behavior. Lombroso’s theory of crime states that criminality is inherited and is not based on the characteristics of human nature. According to his theory, the body constitution of an individual may indicate if he is a born criminal (Radovic, 2015). According to Lombroso, the born criminals are referred to earlier human evolution stage with mental capabilities, physical makeup, and primitive man instincts. The primary physical characteristics that Lombroso applied to differentiate criminals from non-criminals includes the face or head, large lips, excessive cheekbones, big monkey-like ears, extreme wrinkles on the skin, twisted nose and long arms. The policy recommendation that is adherent to Lombroso’s theory that is significant in controlling crime is the policy of selective breeding or sterilization. This policy ensures positive social circumstances for the individuals who portray biological traits of criminals. The system will be fundamental for the prevention and screening programs that target individuals who are at risk of criminal behavior in the future.

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Reference Radovic, C. M. The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening. Public Health Ethics, 270–283. Biological Perspectives That Holds Merit for Explaining Criminal Behavior For a substantial number of years, people use political and sociological aspects to describe criminal behavior. The recent data that are generated from various behavioral science that includes physiological psychology, endocrinology, behavioral genetics, and psychopharmacology indicate that biological perspective plays a crucial role in explaining criminal behavior such as the development of antisocial behavior. According to the biological aspect, there are specific forces that produce antisocial behavior to a particular individual that influences them to commit a crime. The perspective indicates that most people who engage in criminal activities have an early history of aggression and delinquency. Various factors indicate how the biological perspective holds merits to explaining criminal behavior.

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The behavioral and personality attributes such as sociopathy, temper outbursts, hyperactivity, delinquency, violence, conduct disorder, psychopath, aggression and attention deficit disorder that are related to criminal behavior are similar among the family members. The environmental factors such as neighborhood conditions, environmentally toxic, television viewing habit and diet may influences family behavior. The interaction between the biological variables and psychological and social factors that produces the general human behavior and criminal behavior are not specific. The biological explanation of criminal behavior has only investigated a few variables that are isolated but has failed to evaluate the dynamic interrelationship between the social environmental and biological conditions. It is essential to apply sophisticated statistical techniques to assess the biological perspective on antisocial behavior. The three primary compounds that have been singled out to contribute to abnormal altitudes among terrorists include acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and endorphins.

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Individuals who are norepinephrine are the most influential because it is associated with human biology fight mechanisms. The biological theory of terrorism indicates the arousal state that occurs when individuals are under stress where the lungs, heart, and muscles function more efficiently. The theory relates to terrorism because of the behavioral requirement that refers to such criminal activity where an individual is required to fight exhilaration before the occurrence and escape audience manipulation after the incidence. This kind of behavior produces physiological syndrome requirement impartially consistent arousal intervals. A significant number of sociologists, psychologists and criminologists have made a substantial effort to establish criminality nature. Most scholars have contributed to the argument on whether the criminal is created or produced which, arises the question if genetic factors contribute to criminal behavior thus makes the situation unavoidable or whether it is as a result of the environment surrounding, social, situational or other external factors.

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During the ancient time, people thought that upbringing, physical abuse, life that they live at home, unpredictable affection, and unreliable self-restraint might influence misconduct. Psychopath is an additional aspect which, suggests the personal traits of an individual is more likely to contribute to criminal behavior. Psychopath involves antisocial behavior that is referred to as antisocial personality. A. Crime and Personality: Personality Theory and Criminality Examined. Inquiries Journal. Sinha, S. Personality Correlates of Criminals: A Comparative Study Between Normal Controls and Criminals.

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