Critical Review Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder
There is the need to reconsider and revisit the primary causes of such disorders. Barkley says that psychiatric illness is sometimes referred to as mental disorders(2007). It affects the mind of an individual in distinct ways. Therefore, it affects how an individual thinks; hence, impacting how they relate to others in the society. There is an endless list of such illnesses including depression, eating disorders and also addiction among others. Hence, they usually find themselves in trouble. Also, the person portrays increased hyperactivity. For instance, in school, a child would find it hard to sit down. Instead, the kid would continuously talk and move around the classroom. Such children are restless and move from place to place each time. The experience is the same when they laugh.
In the children case, they will continuously find it difficult interacting and play with their counterparts. It is due to their frequent interruptions and restlessness. Adults would often make wrong choices that might impact their lives negatively. An example is a regular resignation in jobs which would make them jobless at times hence unable to cater for their needs. There is no commonly agreed cause of the disease among either the children or the adults. It affects 2-9 percent of the kids and between 3 to 6 percent of the grownups(Coghill, 2005). The effects of the mental disorder are increasingly noticed in society. Therefore, it raises a red flag for extensive research among psychiatrists since the cause of the disease is still unknown.
The people have internalized what can be referred to as theories. Neurotransmitters act as intermediaries facilitating the transfer of information from one neuron to the other. It is the work of each present neuron to release a transmitter that ensures passage of data to the next neuron. Each neurotransmitter is dedicated to only one neuron despite the existence of millions of them. It is because of its unique structure that just suits its counterpart. Thus, they cannot be linked to any other neuron available. It is made up of small molecules known as dopa. It undergoes a transition to dopamine and later into the neurotransmitter. ADHD results from the impaired existence of norepinephrine in various brain parts(Barkley, 2007). It includes front cortex region which is responsible for the maintenance of attention.
It also plays a role in organization and execution of multiple functions. Thus, a person may exhibit inattentiveness and impulsivity. Lastly, ADHD can be as a result of lack of norepinephrine in the reticular area. The brain’s portion is the primary relay system for that operates within the mind. These mentioned parts coordinate together hence impairment to one is likely to affect the others. The brain structure has been the basis of research about the disease (Wilens, Morrisson & Prince, 2011). Alternatively, non-stimulants can be used for treating ADHD. Alpha 2 Agonist is used to enhance the working of stimulants. Earlier, the agonist’s purpose was to reduce the stimulant dosage and increase the therapy period. The combination of the two results to higher efficacy.
Treatment, its Side effects and Adverse effects Interventions on such a disease are more of a trial. There is also Lisdex-amphetamine which cannot be abused easily. Atomoxetine can be used as an alternative. It is a non-stimulant drug with low efficacy. Stimulants vary on how it affects the neurotransmission process. It is because they are absorbed and undergo metabolism differently. The therapy restores the sleeping hours of the patient by minimizing the arising disturbances. Willcutt, Doyle, Nigg &Pennington presuppose that another complication arising from the use of stimulants is the frequent occurrence of a headache (2005). After prolonged use of the drug, the brain tends to get used to it. Thus, at times the patient would experience such troubles due to short time withdrawal from the medication.
Additionally, there is the issue of weight changes brought about by the drugs. There has been the difference in opinions from different perspectives including the media, politicians and also physicians. However, a more significant percentage of the population is in agreement that the mental issue exists. They believe that there is a sufficient supporting theory that confirms the same. ADHD root cause has been a subject of discussion in the recent past by many clinicians and researchers. The current dominant theory of ADHD states that the disorder is associated with neurotransmission problems in the human mind. However, they have limitations regarding abuse. There is a tendency by patients or even the youth to abuse the drugs which can be disastrous to their health.
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