Learning Issues and Needs

Document Type:Coursework

Subject Area:Psychology

Document 1

He was diagnosed with this condition at the age of four years. The 2D gait analysis process initiated the diagnosis. John is in grade seven studying at an American-Indian boarding school. He is of Indian origin and the only Indian student in his class which is in a school whose population is dominantly American in origin. John's parents are among the people who entered the United States as immigrants after WWII as labourers to offer cheap labour. Poverty and great struggle for survival simply characterize the family background of John. Since he was enthusiastic to gain knowledge, John needed to be taken to an unusual school which also provided intervention plans for such cases. He was enrolled in Sterling School under a sponsorship program for the poor students and those with special needs. The humble background and cerebral palsy condition were the main factors that were considered for John to secure a chance in Sterling School for his primary education. In Sterling School, racial discrimination against the non-whites is a common phenomenon. John is compelled to swing against the current and turbulence of all sorts of discrimination to attain his educational ambitions. However, John uses his strengths like hopefulness and the desire for more knowledge to overcome these challenges. John wanted to be academically productive hence he decided to put an effective productivity system in place to support him. This system comprised of appropriate mindset and behaviours that support his productivity. Focusing on behaviour changes is significant to change several conduct behaviours before they become habitual (Hou, Sun, Shan, Wang, Yu, Zhao, & Jiang, 2010).

Sign up to view the full document!

John learns to follow directions hastily, take materials out and put them away quickly, look at the educators when they are talking, finish his tasks before talking to friends, use kind words and respond promptly to essential calls. These behaviours will help him develop good behaviour while pursuing his academic goals because he believed that good behaviours will increase his academic productivity. The types of intervention plans needed for John’s case include the use of IEP program orthopedic surgeon which prevents him from seizures and gastro-oesophageal reflux which is vital in solving difficulties associated with his eating habits. The primary comorbidities associated with cerebral palsy include epilepsy, seizures, ocular defects, hearing defects, spinal deformities, gait disturbances and pneumonia (Pruitt & Tsai, 2009). However, John exhibits gait disturbances, seizures and hearing defects. The left side of the body and hand are mildly affected and hardly allow convenient motion and grasping respectively (Bania, Dodd, Baker, Graham & Taylor, 2016).

Sign up to view the full document!

As such, John walking into some areas of the school, more so tall buildings is a challenge. The cerebral palsy condition became worse when he was in grade five forcing him to stay out of school for two years. Considering that John had to stay at home for two years, his peers finished school before he was deemed capable of managing schoolwork. Apparently, John’s doctor advised him to expect to experience the following features: rigidity of the limbs and trunk which will make him exhibit abnormal postures, unsteady walking styles as well as unstable movements of body muscles (Rosenthal & Simeonsson, 2001). Considering that, his peers do not socialize with him, his speed and depth of learning about current affairs automatically depreciates (Lights & Nelson, 2015). His teachers advised other students to socialize with him and ensure that he was involved in most of the co-curricular activities.

Sign up to view the full document!

His control, as well as coordination of muscles in the case of cerebral palsy, is complicated and consequently, simple movements are challenging to make. Some secondary symptoms accompany cerebral palsy disorder and make life more difficult. Despite his condition, John has several hobbies and interests including travelling and trying several foods in many cultures. Research indicates that children diagnosed with disabilities or life-endangering conditions are greatly stigmatized, marginalized, and discriminated (Debuse, Gibb, & Chandler, 2009). This does not only affect the health outcomes but also education outcomes of such children (Zadnikar & Kastrin, 2011). Since childhood, John has aspired to become a doctor. However, the learning atmosphere, as it is currently, is not conducive to his learning and in his quest to realize his dreams. His family’s humble background coupled with the cerebral palsy disorder has threatened to hinder his goals.

Sign up to view the full document!

For the case of John, the stigmatizations from racial discrimination and lack of a friendly learning environment have been the source of poor performance in class. However, John has the main strength that has kept him moving all the days. He never loses hope, and he is always optimistic that something positive will arise despite his prevailing condition. According to the guidance counsellor, it is puzzling that students with disabilities like the case of John can possess strengths that are similar to their fellows who are free from limitation. The difference that exists is the learning rate and the extent to which the existing infrastructure and resources support the learning of each of the two categories of students. With such positive energy, John is capable of learning many things and eventually become a productive individual in the society.

Sign up to view the full document!

Hopefulness John is hopefulness as evident from his childhood struggles and his capability. Despite being diagnosed with CP, John has always found various ways to work around his challenges. When he was two, his legs were not muscular enough to support him up for walking, and his arms were weak to support regular crawling. This did not stop him from moving to his desired points because he dragged himself along the ground. Additionally, John's parents would refuse to treat him differently from other siblings. This act will make John believe that he could do anything irrespective of his conditions. Moreover, John's parents may empower and improve his confidence by identifying and overcoming the educational and medication conflicts of their child. With these, John might recover from this condition quickly and rapidly.

Sign up to view the full document!

Apart from the parents, teachers are essential determinant for the wellbeing of John. In recent studies, scientists have explained efficiently the most basic as well as an irrefutable argument concerning happiness. The main conclusion that these researchers bring out is that happiness and good health go together (Pruitt & Tsai, 2009). Apparently, particular researches on happiness indicate that happiness can make an individual’s heart healthier, improve their immune system as well as prolong their life (Mackay, 2016). Medical practitioners agree that a sombre mood follows suit as soon as a person confirms of having an ailment. With the assurance that a lot of capital will be spent to make someone healthy, stress quickly kicks in, and this triggers hormonal imbalance resulting in the development of heart diseases. Primary comorbidities are the absolute outcomes of the cognitive damage and abnormality that causes this ailment (Hou, Sun, Shan, Wang, Yu, Zhao, & Jiang, 2010).

Sign up to view the full document!

Primary indicators of this disorder include damaged Moto control (fine, oral and gross), weakened motor synchronization, and impaired muscle balance, tone, and attitude. Also, individuals with cerebral palsy have exhibited secondary conditions resulting from the original conditions. This category of the condition includes swallowing, difficulty feeding, respiratory issues, and poor nutrition (Hou, Sun, Shan, Wang, Yu, Zhao, & Jiang, 2010). The feeding, drooling and swallowing difficulties are caused by the damaged oral speed control since they have problems controlling physiques in their throats and mouths (Hou, Sun, Shan, Wang, Yu, Zhao, & Jiang, 2010). The assessments mainly help in understanding the severity and the type of paralysis experienced. The assessments are applicable to the students of all ages because the assessments include several multiphase analyses meaning that the analysis can be conducted to any individual irrespective of their demographic characteristics.

Sign up to view the full document!

For instance, the 2D gait analysis can be used for patients with walking challenges due to muscles problems (Stanton, 2012). This technique is to help assess the walking ability in an upright posture and the walking style of the young adults. The most significant strength of this assessment is its ability to provide images of how the patient’s body moves due to some imbalances such as dysfunction of the tibialis posterior muscle which is the frequent reason for the knee, foot, and leg injury (Reid, 2002). Additionally, Gross Moor Function Measure, Mini-Assisting Hand Assesment (Mini-AHA) and modified Tardieu scale are the alternative programs employed to assess individuals with Cerebral Palsy (Rosenthal & Simeonsson, 2001). For these reasons, it is inarguable that medical practitioners should consider using these interventions as the primary recovery plan. Intervention Plans An orthopaedic surgeon is one of the most useful intervention procedures that can be used in John’s case.

Sign up to view the full document!

The model is useful for the correction of deformed joints and strengthening the muscles of the victims (Bonouvrié et al. Furthermore, practitioners contend that this procedure is more effective when applied to teens as compared to the adults because individuals’ physicality adapts to the environment during the adolescent stage. For this reason, machine-support is essential to ensure that these groups are not exposed to health risks associated with lack of food nutrients in the body. Also, surgery is the long-term solution to the problems related to the intake and digestion of foodstuffs. As for the John’s case, machines and operation are the immediate and enduring medications that will help him maintain his eating abilities respectively. Also, cognitive therapy session will help John to develop outstanding character traits. Considering that people who have cerebral palsy are prone to social discrimination, the respective development of negative moral attributes would be imminent (Verschuren, Peterson, Balemans & Hurvitz, 2016).

Sign up to view the full document!

Besides, occupational therapy and physiotherapy are other critical interventions for the individuals with similar exceptionalities like John. These therapies focus on encouraging individuals with cerebral palsy in their day-to-day activities such as walking, sitting, plating, toileting, and dressing (Patel, 2005). Also, these expertises employ several movement training and tools such as walking frames, supportive seating, walking frames, orthotics and footwear (Patel, 2005). This intervention will help John to overcome walking challenges that threaten his academic performance. This intervention considers John’s IEP by addressing the issue of environmental challenges he encounters while in the school settings. They have to incur additional costs to ensure that all the needs are addressed. He requires supports such as social care services, financial support, voluntarily organization, welfare rights, support groups and hospice and respite services. In the education sphere, John needs integrated education system and facilities that will enable him to study in an advantageous environment with other learners.

Sign up to view the full document!

Moreover, John requires multiple therapies to help him confront the common challenges faced by individuals with cerebral palsy. The IEP will address John’s intellectual, social and emotional needs. The special education program involves the development of Individual Education-Plans for children with exceptionalities within a learning institution (CEC Policy Manual, 2018). John’s teachers maintained that social education program will help john overcome the challenges he is facing in the school. The primary purpose of Individual Education Plans (IEP) is to address specific needs for individualized cases in the learning institution. It involves developing educational policies that contain not only the principle of inclusion but also the tools that will help in the implementation of that principle (Towle, 2015). In the special-education program, the learning process is focused on the individual situation of a student rather than on curriculum requirements for all students in a collective manner.

Sign up to view the full document!

Also, the teachers maintain that the meetings will help them understand the special needs that john requires while in the school compound. John needs a variety of social support including buddy or mentor programs, support groups, and playgroups. John’s teachers and parents might consult behavioural therapists when John becomes withdrawn, unable to express his emotions or when having the difficult time being accepted by other students. A health practitioner will be informed of the health implication and limitations that come along with the cerebral palsy condition that John is suffering from. This health practitioner will present the do’s and don’ts which involve issues of movement and sitting hours which will help in designing lesson plans for John. According to the teachers, including John’s class performance will help other education stakeholders understand the areas that need to be addressed when designing the IEP.

Sign up to view the full document!

However, the teachers feel that the move will present John with an added advantage over the other students. Besides, the guidance counsellor maintains that teamwork will enhance the healthcare practitioners understand John’s inherent traits. A special-education teacher will understand John’s disability and have the ability to offer individualized instruction. He or she has an understanding of the manner and time certain teaching styles, as well as instructional methods, are useful in the efforts toward attaining John’s needs (Rebhorn, 2017). This document contains the decisions that are made at the IEP meeting. The IEP document is produced when all the parties that are involved in the IEP process have agreed upon the aspects discussed. Periodic reviewing of the IEP document is done, and the progress of the child (John) monitored.

Sign up to view the full document!

In addition to IEP, John's parents need to be proactive in planning and supporting him for the subsequent life especially on the transition between childhood, teen years and adulthood. Parents might continue to work with school systems to support programs that improve the life and communication skills of these individuals (Binks, Barden, Burke, & Young, 2007). John’s doctor contends that this strategy will encourage him to continue seeking medical advises throughout his life. Furthermore, parents may instil the required skills to maintain an apartment or house such as paying bills and rent and make sure that he continues to practice these skills (Binks, Barden, Burke, & Young, 2007). These suggestions will help John prepare to be independent in the adulthood periods and live a healthy life. Parents and guardians play an important role in the life of the children especially kids diagnosed with cerebral palsy.

Sign up to view the full document!

First parents need to keep things on the positive level via encouraging the kids to participate in activities that make them happy and develop healthy lifestyle habits. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the missed instructions and the assignments. It is also required that the involved parties like the teachers, parents, doctors, and therapists provide an education plan that will make such students as John explore their full potential. As such, the IEP will be focused on the school infrastructure (classrooms and boarding sections), time management and allocation, and the design of the learning process. The classroom layout is one of the aspects to be contained in John’s IEP. The design of the classrooms should allow easy accessibility for John. In addition, the plan of lessons for John will be contained in his IEP.

Sign up to view the full document!

This plan will include the schedules of classes, accommodation, hospital visits, social support programs, and all activities to be involved in the learning process. The technological resources that are appropriate for the learning of John considering the Cerebral palsy condition will be contained in the IEP such as specialty keyboards, pencil grips, and switches that will make the learning process comfortable and productive for John. The doctors revealed that technological advancements are vital for the cognitive development. These devices are necessary for students like John to enhance learning and help them be on the same level as the others. The parents believe that this ideation will increase their economic burden despite the benefits it offers. On the other hand, the teachers maintain that availability of emergency services will ensure that learners get prompt medical care whenever they are needed.

Sign up to view the full document!

It is also important to arrange for ways of encouraging the extracurricular activities for students like John. Dancing and physical fitness are necessary John since it helps in improving some body functions (Verschuren, Peterson, Balemans, & Hurvitz, 2016). Independence, mobility, communication, psychosocial adjustment, and self-care are some of the activities that can be enhanced through dancing. One of the things that should be done is preparing the students to be financially independent. John’s parents believe that financial independent is the primary aspect that differentiates adults from teens and preparing their son to be financial independent will help him manage his bills in the future life. John needs to be supported by the teachers and the guardians to enable him to stand out. Being responsible and independent is also crucial for students like John so that he caters to his needs.

Sign up to view the full document!

John should be encouraged to make new friends and to learn to make more friends, by being sociable; it is possible to determine many things that are important to the life of an individual. Another assessment technique is the Goal Attachment Scaling where the health professionals work in hand with the people living with cerebral palsy to get a work out goals during the intervention. This method is used along with others like the Individually Prioritised Problem Assessment (IPPA). Through goal attainment scaling, it is possible to measure the outcomes of psychosocial interventions. This assessment can be utilized to tell if John is responding to treatment and other interventions. Other assessment programs available for patients with cerebral palsy include; Gross Motor Function Measure, Mini-Assisting Hand Assessment, and Modified Tardieu Scale. References Bania, T.

Sign up to view the full document!

A. Dodd, K. J. Baker, R. S. Burke, T. A. Young, N. L. The effect of intrathecal baclofen treatment on activities of daily life in children and young adults with cerebral palsy and progressive neurological disorders.  European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 20(4), 538-544. Debuse, D. Gibb, C. Chandler, C. H. Jiang, Y. P. Comorbidities in patients with cerebral palsy and their relationship with neurologic subtypes and Gross Motor Function Classification System levels.  Zhonghua er ke za zhi= Chinese journal of pediatrics, 48(5), 351-354. Badawi, N. Concise Review: Stem Cell Interventions for People With Cerebral Palsy: Systematic Review With Meta‐Analysis.  Stem cells translational medicine, 5(8), 1014-1025. Patel, D. R.  Pediatric rehabilitation, 5(3), 141-148. Rosenthal, S. L. Simeonsson, R. J. Mobility devices to promote activity and participation: a systematic review.  Journal of rehabilitation medicine, 41(9), 697-706. Stanton, M.

Sign up to view the full document!

 Understanding cerebral palsy: A guide for parents and professionals. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Kastrin, A. Effects of hippotherapy and therapeutic horseback riding on postural control or balance in children with cerebral palsy: a meta‐analysis.  Developmental medicine & child neurology, 53(8), 684-691.

Sign up to view the full document!

From $10 to earn access

Only on Studyloop

Original template

Downloadable