Effects of Damping Food Waste and Urbanization of Kolkata on The Environment

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Other

Document 1

Furthermore, the wetland is the source of the thriving social, ecological and productive duties of the city. The members of the city depend on the low-cost water by using the indigenous wastewater management skills and the techniques of water recycling. The residents are also farmers who are producing cereals and vegetables while some do fishing for survival. However, those living in the wetlands are encountered by several problems such as lack of clean water for drinking and sanitation equipment. Furthermore, (Breeze 43) the survival of the residents is threatened by the rapid growth of the urban centers encroaching to the eastern zone. Research questions and hypothesis 1. Does the dumping of waste from the food outlets in Central Kolkata affect the environmental conditions and the biodiversity of the city due to the changes for waste created? Ho1.

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Damping of waste from the food outlets in Central Kolkata does not affect the environmental conditions and the biodiversity of the city due to the changes for garbage created. Ha1. Damping of waste from the food outlets in Central Kolkata affects the environmental conditions and the biodiversity of the city due to changes for garbage created. Because of such growth, the city confronts significant traffic congestion, overpopulation, pollution, poverty, prostitution and other socioeconomic problems related to urban areas. Damping of solid food wastes in Central Kolkata is one of the causes of water pollution that affect the biodiversity of the region under study. Based on the researcher's findings, the area comprises of 38 municipalities and 77 non-municipal areas. The non-municipal regions consist the 24 village local bodies, and the suburban areas of Kolkata contain the 24 north and 24 south Parganas, Nadia, Hooghly, and Howrah.

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The city covers approximately 635. The treated waste is used for feeding the fish in the rivers and irrigation of the wetlands agricultural area. Due to such feedings, the city produces approximately 14000 tonnes of fish every year. A given proportion of the sewage is used for irrigation of the agricultural land leading to the production of about 200 tonnes of vegetables daily and breeding of around ten plant species (De and Debate 204). According to Dey, the only approximately 30 percent of the solid waste from food is used for crop production, irrigation and horticulture and the rest is discharged in the Bay of Bengal directly. Therefore, the problem of dumping the food waste into the rivers continues despite the fact that several committee meetings have proposed proper waste management in the city.

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234 Secondary Data The researcher also collected significant data regarding the city from the documentaries such as articles, journals, and books. The author examined the effects of the Kolkata urbanization on the Sundarbans. The Sundarbans lies to the southeast of Kolkata (West Bengal). The area accommodates the mangrove forests, which comprise about 81 percent of the total mangrove forest in India. Moreover, regarding the biodiversity, the threatened mammals such as tiger, smaller predators, around 200 avian species, the grey-headed fish-eagle and greater adjunct stork live in the area (Mohamed and Paleologos 424). Analysis The researcher analyzed the data by considering the effects of damping of wastes and urbanization on the environment through the study of the energy use and the emissions of the carbon into the atmosphere between the years 2014 and 2015.

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The results showed that industries use approximately 3 million tonnes of coal and over 600 million units electrical energy for their operations. The other analysis is shown in the table below. Table 1. 0: The use of Energy by various sectors in Kolkata Sector Energy/fuel Quantity Residential Electrical (million kWh) 2,001. Based on the findings, the researcher analyzed the survival abilities of the organisms by calculating the average PH, DO, EC and TDS and comparing the results with the facts from the secondary data for the conclusion. Calculations Average PH = total PH/Total tests = (6. 76 Samples 1. Average 2. Below average 3. Below average 2. Above average 3. Below average 4. Above average 5. Below average Average EC= Sum of the results/Total tests = (423. The Methylated test is used to investigate the ability of the microorganisms to ferment the glucose to stabilize the production of high concentrations of acids end products in the water bodies.

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The researcher obtained the following results from the analysis test. Sample population Indole production test Voges-proskauer test Citrate utilization test Methylated test 1 18 - - - - 2 34 - - + - 3 27 - - _ - 4 45 - - _ - 5 16 - - _ - From the test, the researcher analyzed the types of organisms which could have been present in the water from the rivers flowing in Kolkata city. The white (population) test revealed that the types of organisms living in the area are yeast. The sample 1 contains high number of yeast colonies. coli present. However, the Enterobacter-Klebsiella group could be present. Conclusion The research on the effects of urbanization and food waste discharge on the environment regarding biodiversity illustrated that the sudden urbanization of Kolkata and the damped food waste account for 54% carbon emission to the atmosphere.

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