Water Security Access to Water
2 Statement of the problem……………………………………………. 3 Research question………………………………………………………. 4 Research objective………………………………………………………. 5 Research aim………………………………………………………………. 6 Organization of the paper………………………. 21 5 Discussion ………………………………………………………………………. 23 6 Summary …………………………………………………………………. 24 7 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………. 26 8 References…………………………………………………………………………. Abstract The concept of water security and accessibility in the 21st century continue to elicit conflicting views from various scholars and policymakers. According to Bakker (2006), water is hypothesized by its regulatory frameworks instituted by the political and socio-economic practices applied in its management. Essentially, water is symbolically an element that defines the socio-economic status of a particular country. According to UNESCO (2006), water security is achievable through a set of management strategies influenced by various aspects of nature, power and social relations. On this perspective, social relations include such factors such as culture and inter-communal relations. Therefore, water security is directly influenced by factors of governance and equitable access to the resource (Trifunovi, 2006, p.
Moreover, the capital groundwater capacity was estimated to be around 20 billion cubic meters in 2012 which remains relatively unexploited (Kebede, 2012, p. The links of water security and accessibility are not socio-ecologically neutral but exist as consequence of several scientific-technical factors in combination with political spheres. In particular, Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia continue to face the challenge of access to clean drinking water. Research findings by Watkins(2006) on global water crises indicate that access to clean drinking in developing countries is mainly undermined by deficiencies in management caused by; weak institutions, bureaucracy inertia and insufficient capital investment ("Overview: Beyond scarcity power, poverty, and the global water crisis," 2006, p. Water security requires a strong water policy with an established infrastructure of tapping and distribution under the management of properly coordinated institutional framework.
In the assessment of the state of water security, the research largely focused on water sources, the quantity and the reliability of the sources. In comparison to developed countries in Europe, whose average water per person stands at 400 liters per day as of 2016, the region’s socio-economic welfare and development is way behind due insufficient water supply (Byliss, 2008, p. On this note, water security continues to be a major challenge not just in the region but also in many developing countries 2. 2 Research Statement of Problem The challenge of inaccessibility to water poses a big challenge towards improvement of the socio-economic growth of communities living in regions deprived of clean drinking water ("Water scarcity, risk and vulnerability," 2006, p. In the case of Addis Ababa, these factors have formed a dimension inadequate governance of water sector in the city that would otherwise be transformed into water secure (Mason et al, 2013,p.
The extent of the study will further explore the existing water management strategies to determine their role in the current situation in the country. Therefore, in summary seek to show how water security is linked conceptually to the problem of water shortage in Addis Ababa using the theory of access of resource management approach. 3 Research Question The thesis will seek to find answers to the following research question: How is water security conceptualized through theory of access in resource management? 2. 4 Research Objective General Objective The general objective of this thesis paper is to is to study accessibility theory in water resource management determine how it can lead to improved water security in Addis Ababa that has low levels of secure connections of improved sources.
Precisely, seek ways that above described research problem of limited access to clean water is conceptualized towards improved management in a sustainable and equitable way in the country. In essence, the section will investigate the Addis Ababa’s current situation through the lens of access theory. Also subject the practical paradigms of the country’s water policies to an evaluation in correlation to the theory of access. This will involve a review of the existing studies on the country’s water management systems. Finally discuss the findings of the study to hypothesize the evidence presented in the literary material reviewed in the study. Literature Review This chapter will critically examine the existing peer-reviewed scholarly literature on the theory of access and the way it relates to the concept of water security in Ethiopia’s capital Addis Ababa.
The scholars provide frameworks that show how the relationships in social circles inter-relate with the procedural processes to formulate an empirical plan by academicians and policymakers in the quest for access to the resources. On this perspective, it is important to note that access is driven by the processes and social relationships that make it possible for the stakeholders to derive benefits. In this case, the stakeholders include the community members, government institutions and other relevant players such as private organizations or companies. Natural Water sources in most societies in the global community are community owned, and government regulated which means that all those required to access the resources have to consult with the relevant authorities (Ribot & Peluso, 2009, p. According to the framing, the means to derive benefits includes the scientific and technological know-how to derive the benefits from things.
Its application varies across disciplines with an underlying similarity that harmonizes the four main elements of water security; quality, quantity, reliability, and governance. Table 2 demonstrates some of the different perspectives that help define water security from the perspective of its utility as a natural resource. 3 Concept of water security in terms of access Water security in terms of access according to Grey and Sadoff (2007) is the available quantity of water whose quality meets the health and needs of the consumers. Also, the livelihoods and environmental standards of the environment about production economies are maintained at the minimum standards (Grey & Sadoff, 2007, p. The current position of the conceptual explanations of water security, however, pursues various approaches. In a nutshell, water security connects to access on the dimension of availability means the asymmetrical allocation of water per household from the various existing water sources.
Accessibility concept is equally influenced by the existing infrastructure that assists the stakeholders to derive value and potential benefits to their life. In essence, the concept indicates the promotion of access to water through supporting of self-constructed water supply systems as part of the infrastructure significantly improving the livelihoods of residents (Schilling, 1990, p. The construction of these spaces involves different kinds of artificial modes of improved water sources such as dams, home-based storage facilities, and distribution networks into the households of stakeholders (Brown, 2014, p. WHO identifies the three main kinds of self-constructed supply systems that influence the accessibility concept which advances improved water sources for consumers. Right to gain income 3. Right to transfer the gains of the resources to other parties 4.
Right to sanction ownership rights On this perspective, the accessibility of water resources based on the property rights is the common legal constructs that determine the ways that it is utilized for the economic welfare of all interested parties (Wang, 2017, p. According to resource management specialists, the accessibility is ultimately focused on achieving the following two primary results; (a) Reducing investment risk and offering incentives for investment (b) Improving socio-economic welfare of households. The findings of Carmine Guerriero (2016) show that strict protection of the property rights consequently led to better management of natural resources. 20), peer-reviewed literature presents conflicting views. Neo-liberal scholars view governance in the form of markets and government policies while other focus on the democratic perspective of the systems (Hill, 2012, p.
On this note, the liberal perspective integrates the elements of transparency and accountability. One of the most widely used forms of definitions of governance regarding water accessibility is the definition of the UNDP (1997). It states that “Governance is the exercise of administrative authority in water management at all the levels. According to the research findings by Woldemariam & Narsiah in 2014 showed that 40 % of the population in country’s capital have no access to adequate water. Mainly, water insecurity in the capital involves not only the challenges of equitable allocation of the resource but also its reliability (Woldemariam & Narsiah, 2014, p. Statistical data from the UN’s World Meteorological Organization (WTO) in 2014 , rainfall in the area is inadequate, and other improved sources are unavailable to the residents as the graphical representation below shows.
Critically evaluating the current situation in Addis Ababa reveal that water access in the country is inherently discriminative. As Ribbot and Peluso (2003) theory assert, the accessibility of natural resources is determined by the derivative capacity of the society to tap the benefits of the resources and the fundamental rights to acquire the benefits. On this note, the market forces of the city have the low purchasing power to acquire adequate water for both domestic and production needs (Seyoum & Graham, 2016, p. The Federal Government of Ethiopia knowledge background on the water sources remains relatively small with the most research on the country’s water potential being done by private entities (Mason et al. , 2013, p. Further Mason, in his article, indicates the Government sponsored research on the existing groundwater volumes to improve the cities access solely rely on the Faculty of Earth Sciences.
Regulation of water and distribution in the country remains city councils duty in partnership with the relevant stakeholders such as Ministry of Water (Mason, MacDonald, Mtisi, Haylamicheal, & Abebe, 2013, p. Framing water security and access from theory into practice requires that the city administration apply various monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to examine the progress in achieving sustainable water security in the Addis Ababa (Awulachew, Erkossa, & Balcha, 2011, p. On this note, the SDG proposes seven indicators that quantitatively measure the level of “access,” thereby determining the scales of water security defined by universal access. The city Equity index of accessibility to healthy and affordable water for consumption to all people helps to frame the theoretical concept of water security to the practical implementation of mechanisms of access measured in available volumes per household (Awulachew, Erkossa, & Balcha, 2011, p.
The table bellows summarize the key indicators proposed by the researcher in framing practical aspects water security in Addis Ababa. Table 3. The theory of access in assessing water security makes reasonable assumptions in its theoretical frameworks that help in guiding the hypothetical conclusions in resource management studies. In essence, these assumptions form a guiding principle in the analyzing data acquired from research on natural resources and how their accessibility contributes to the added value of the stakeholders. First, it focuses on the ability to derive benefits rather than property rights as described in the property rights. Therefore, the theory helps to determine the actual benefits each stakeholder involved derive from things and reasons why they possess this power. This thesis paper establishes the processes applied in gaining access to resources as determinants of the power strands inherent in the derivative actions that shape the elements of water security.
Finally, water governance increases water access through the formulation of policies enforcing water rights of each stakeholder encapsulated in the legal provisions. Summary In summary, the theory of access explains the dynamicity of the concept as it correlates with the natural resources management. The theory integrates various aspects covering all the dimensions required to gain access to the natural resource. On the hand, the construction of the infrastructure offers both a long-term and short-term solution to water scarcity thereby contributing towards a reliable water source for consumption. Individual-based and community-based investments in “self-supply” water sources vary considerably based on the ecological characteristics of their immediate environments. On this perspective, water security links with access through the protective measures instituted to safeguard water sources.
According to US Environmental and Protection Agency, water security involves such actions that protect water sources from any kinds of contamination or intentional harm to the water infrastructure (Morley, 2013, p. The theme correlates with UNESCO’s approach to water security. On this perspective, water security is understood through the regulatory frameworks created to ensure there is protection from any potential threat they may pose to human beings. According to Cook and Bekker, understanding water security involves sustainably developing water resources with an emphasis on guarding water infrastructure. 1371/journal. pone. 0181516 Awulachew, S. B. , Erkossa, T. Next Generation Infrastructure, 149-169. doi:10. 5822/978-1-61091-202-0_7 Calow, R. , Nicol, A. , & Abebe, Z. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 24(2), 201-215. doi:10. 1080/07900620701723570 Grey, D. , & Sadoff, C.
W. , & Zhang, X. Water Security. Handbook of Engineering Hydrology, 545-554. doi:10. 1201/b16766-29 Hill, M. Groundwater in Ethiopia, 187-203. doi:10. 1007/978-3-642-30391-3_5 Kebede, S. Groundwater Potential, Recharge, Water Balance: Vital Numbers. Groundwater in Ethiopia, 221-236. Ethiopia's water resources, policies, and institutions. Achieving Water Security, 25-48. doi:10. 002 Mason, N. , MacDonald, A. Water Resources Research, 40(9). doi:10. 1029/2003wr002836 Morley, K. M. Security and Preparedness -- Water Sector Security and Preparedness. H. , & Anson, E. Southwest Watershed Research Center Data Access Project. Water Resources Research, 44(5). doi:10. 18356/3f59dfee-en Ribot, J. C. , & Peluso, N. L. A Theory of Access*. 001 Rogers, P. Water governance, water security and water sustainability. Water Crisis, 3-35. doi:10. pt1 Schilling, K. Introduction: Sustainability of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). Sustainability of Integrated Water Resources Management, 1-6.
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