Parental involvement and training during childhood in the development of self-control
Though learning improves with age, self-control gained during childhood is usually resistant to change. Participation in crime depends on an individual’s self-control. The social learning theory, on the other hand, argues that individuals learn from their engagement with their social environment. The paper creates an understanding of the role that parents have to play in reducing crimes in society through children self-control. It also provides recommendations to parents and future researchers. Literature Review Children rely on their parents to develop self-control skills. Research shows that people develop self-control during their childhood. The level of self-control that a person develops during childhood is usually resistant to change. Hence, parents play a vital role in determining the future behavior of their child.
According to Landry (2014), parenting style determines the kind of knowledge that a child develops. According to Cherry (2018), children can learn through observation. Children can observe the parents actions and store information for future reference. Markham (2015) opines that by de-escalating drama and soothing, a parent can help the child to come down with ease. Soothing strengthens the child’s brain. Aggressive reaction to the child’s defiant shows the child that there is a need to prepare for an attack. Involvement is also an important component of the child’s development. Discussing solutions to certain problems with the child helps to create a good learning environment. Discussing the discipline techniques with the child is also important in helping the child to understand the punishment.
Children need to manage their reactions in different situations to survive and manage life tasks. According to Tao et al. The parent has to assert some level of authority on the child to provide guidance on right and wrong. According to Omer et al. (2013), parents who develop authority and a relationship bond with their children create a secure relational frame for the child. Developing some level of authority over the child while maintaining a relational bond creates a safe haven for the child. According to Gliebe (2011), authoritative parents improve communication between the child and the parent. This is the level of self-control that influences their participation in deviant behavior in later stages of life. Hence, a parent’s contribution to the child’s future criminal life depends on the development of the child’s self-control during childhood.
General Self-control Theory The theory of self-control states that people engage in criminal behavior as a result of their lack of self-control. Self-control theory also links people’s behavior to their parents and caregivers during childhood below ten years of age. According to this theory, children whose bringing up was ineffectual at that age lack or have problems maintaining self-control. According to Gottfredson and Hirshi (1990), people learn self-control during early stages of life. People who learn self-control also develop a self-control change resistance. The theory indicates that people who don’t develop self-control have a high probability of engaging in criminal activity at some point in their lives. Though individual self-control increases as people grow up, its basis is at the early stages of life.
As people grow up, the opportunity cost of crime or loss of control increases. People evaluate the environmental norms and act in accordance with what they deem generally acceptable. Bandura’s social learning theory combines reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s judgment of a situation (Marks, 2002). A person must analyze a situation and the consequences of the situation before acting. A learning person bases action judgment on the knowledge. Bandura’s theory of social learning adds an observation to other forms of learning like punishment and conditioning. People can learn by simply observing other people perform the action (Cherry, 2018). For learning to occur through observation, the internal mental state of the individual plays a major role. However, learning does not imply that learners will employ new knowledge to change their behavior.
Social learning does not directly translate into a change of behavior. Based on the theory of social-learning, parents or guardians are the first models for their children. Children look up to their parents to develop the coded information necessary to guide their future actions and behavior. Parents, on the other hand, provide guidance and route to self-control through parenting styles and skills. Children learn self-control through behavioral and cognitive strategies. Behavioral approaches towards self-control development included conditioning and punishment. A child needs patience, understanding, and explanation from the parent. When a parent explains situations to the child through conditioning, the child eventually develops knowledge of right and wrong. When a parent does not tolerate defiant behavior and chooses to punish, the explanation is essential to the effectiveness of the action.
In other words, a parent’s discipline style determines the kind of knowledge that the child derives from the situation. When the parent explains to the child the reason behind the punishment and the necessary actions towards improvement, the child easily understands. Parent expectations act as goals and objectives for the children to achieve. Hence, children develop routine and knowledge of expected actions. Children also develop a relationship through participation and information. Receiving information through communication helps the children develop instruction taking skills and the ability to abide by the rules. Participation, especially in assignments and house chores also helps the child to develop responsibility. When a parent sets controls for the play, the child develops the ability to understand limits in life.
The child develops the ability to understand necessary actions when aggrieved. Confrontations during playtime help the child to manage aggression. When parents fail to take control of the game, the child develops behavioral problems (Gliebe, 2011). However, the level of control depends on the context of the game. Observed actions do not necessarily lead to immediate behavioral change. Hence, the parent may not realize the child has learned from a certain situation. Parents look up to their parents for specific self-control facets. Research shows that most children learn aggression management from their fathers and emotional and anxiety management from their mothers. Children also learn attachment management from their mothers. Since children learn through observation, participation allows the child to see the necessary reactions when the parent observes the limit.
Observing the limit also helps the child develop future skills of teaching others. Recommendation For the child to learn self-control, the parent must develop an ample learning environment in which to bring up the child. The parent must learn the facets of self-control and the factors that influence the child’s ability to learn. Most importantly, it is important for the parent to understand the avenues of learning that the child may employ. As role models, parents should provide examples for their children to learn from. Inadvertent actions may provide an unwanted foundation for their children’s future actions. Hence, the parent's actions inform of their children should always portray right or wrong actions the parent would like to teach the child.
In other words, the parent should always be mindful of the inadvertent actions and their effect on the child’s learning. Since self-control is a subject of social learning, the parent’s actions determine the child’s self-control levels. Journal of communication, 28(3), 12-29. Cherry, K. How Social Learning Theory Works. Very well Mind. Retrieved from: https://www. Criminology and Crimiminal Justice. Retrieved from: http://oxfordre. com/criminology/view/10. 1093/acrefore/9780190264079. 0001/acrefore-9780190264079-e-252 Gottfredson, M. com/parenting-skills/according-experts/role-parents-early-childhood-learning Markham, L. 8 Steps to Help Your Child Develop Self Control. Psychology Today. Retrieved from: https://www. psychologytoday. O’Donnell, L. Teaching Your Child Self-Control. Kids Health. Retrieved from: https://kidshealth. org/en/parents/self-control. , & Gao, W. Development of self-control in children aged 3 to 9 years: perspective from a dual-systems model.
From $10 to earn access
Only on Studyloop