Policing the police Research
As a result, the police department has been characterized by numerous patterns of unconstitutional conducts which have led to community suffering, deaths, mass destruction of properties during demonstrations such as the Blue Lives Matter and the Black Live Matter movements as result of police brutality. The once sane communal areas have been turned hunting point for criminals by the police. The primary source of these conducts has been racism through which the development of policing and civil rights has emanated. The Department of Justice although stepping in to provide succinct reform mandates, the police force is still troubled by increased racism and inequalities based on different factors such as color and gender. Therefore, the primary aim of this paper is to provide a precise analysis of the police brutality by use of excessive force which is driven by biasedness not only in terms of race but gender as well.
S (Amnesty International, 1999). Police brutality Police brutality is a direct violation of both domestic and international treaties which the U. S is a party. As at 2014, after every 28 hours, the police were involved in one killing of a Black according to a report released by the Malcolm X on Grassroots movement (Hudson, 2014). According to the Human Rights Watch report (2016), the police in the United States are characterized by a high number of civilian killings. The biasedness maybe implicit or explicit bias where the latter is a situation when the discriminator is in a position to self-report the incidences of their biased behavior while the former is when the discriminator is not conscious his actions. Racial biasedness towards the police usually starts at an early since the police in their evaluation of Black youths consider them to be less innocent compared to White youths (Hall & Perry, 2016).
In uncountable instances, police officers in the U. S have engaged in implicit racial bias towards the Black. Blacks have been arrested out of suspicion by the police officers despite clear restrictions from the Constitution’s Fourth Amendment (Keene, 2017). Apostle Paul provides the precise time for using weapons by the law enforcement officers by indicating that a police officer is a “God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer” (Romans 13:14 English Standard Version). This assertion by Paul outlines the instances when the police use of force is necessary and the power bequeathed to them by the authority in-charge.
Report by Amnesty International in 2015 indicated that in America most of the African Americans are killed using lethal force by the police with most of the victims being unarmed. In 2018, the unarmed Black male was shot and killed while standing in their backyard by the police (Lockhart, 2018). Despite being no threat to the police officers, the Black male was hot eight times with the authority taking no remedial measures. The police use of force national data in the U. S is regarded as inaccurate and never comprehensively reflecting correct number of police shootings and death of civilians as result of lethal weapons (Amnesty International, 1999). According to DeGue, Fowler & Calkins (2016), the members of the minority groups in the U. Police accountability According to Sutton (2009), the police accountability falls under three levels including the; self-accountability, supervisory accountability and the administrative accountability.
Self-accountability requires the police officers to be in harmony with each other before embarking on community services. Secondly, the supervisory accountability must ensure that officers climbing up the ladder have the required training that will give them smooth transition and help them take up a positive role towards their fellow officers. The administrative accountability involves the procedural accountability checks carried out by the police department administration of any level ascertain and conducts or misconducts of their officers. In the U. Therefore, it is important that clear directions be made available to hold police officers responsible for any action against the provided code of conducts. The police must also be well trained and equipped to carry out their mandate in a professional manner.
The existence of a proper complaint system is also imperative for the promotion of police accountability where the investigation of allegations and complaints and disciplinary measures are effectively provided. For instance, in California after the death of Stephon Clark, the state has embarked on adopting a Bill that aims to hold the police more accountable in their actions by restricting the use of force from “reasonable force” to “necessary force” (Charles, 2018). There are different actors who once involved in a system will lead to effective police accountability. S. Permissibility of colour and racial profiling. WJ Legal Stud. , 5, i. Chaney, C. Keene, S. L. Raising arguments about the potential influence of implicit racial bias in police stops. Criminal Justice, 3, 5. Hall, A. American journal of public health, 107(2), 295-297.
Amnesty International. Deadly Force & Police Accountability. Retrieved from: https://www. amnestyusa. Retrieved from: https://www. hrw. org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/united-states. Accessed on July 11, 2018. Stoughton, S. The Marshall Project. Retrieved from: https://www. techdirt. com/articles/20180624/18081640105/another-police-accountability- miracle-five-officers-zero-body-cam-footage-one-dead-body. shtml. Retrieved from: https://www. unodc. org/pdf/criminal_justice/Handbook_on_police_Accountability_Overs ight_and_Integrity. pdf. Accessed on July 11, 2018. Deaths due to use of lethal force by law enforcement: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 17 US States, 2009–2012. American journal of preventive medicine, 51(5), S173-S187. Parent, R. The police use of deadly force: International comparisons. The Police Journal, 79(3), 230-237. Retrieved from https://www. amnesty. org/download/Documents/144000/amr511471999en. pdf Sutton, R. Policing with honor: The three levels of accountability.
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