Research on Islamophobia

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:English

Document 1

” following September 11, 2001, the ceiling of acceptable hate-speech against Muslims, was blown off. Borderline provocateurs like Ann Coulter could say in print what previously a good editor, or at least decorum, would have prevented (p. Islamophobia is the anti-Muslim abuse, hatred, and violence. Classifying Islamophobia as racism moves the issue from individual biases and prejudice to the structural nature. It is a form of racism as the prejudice occurs based on their religion, perceived national, religious, or ethnic identity with Islam. The actions and mentalities aim to demean an entire class of people. In this case, the paper intends to show that government policies during the ‘War on Terror’ period silenced Muslim opinion and dampened social activism. The policy implementation led to normalizing of the suspicion and discrimination against Muslims. For instance, there was introduction of policing of mosques, Muslim community activism, and beards. On top of that, the policy stigmatized against Muslim women clothing such as Hijab leading to the securitization of the Muslim community. Institutionalized Islamophobia occurs through the implementation of policies meant to curb freedom and rights of Muslims. According to Elis Gjevori Islamophobia is being defined as a form of racism. Why? Elis Gjevori says that majority of Western Europe citizens favor restrictions of Muslim women’s religious attire. He says,” In August of this year, Denmark became the latest Western European country to ban Muslim women from wearing the face veil following Austria, Belgium and France, as well as parts of Italy and Spain who have enacted similar laws over the last decade (Gjevori, 2018).

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Furthermore, there are immigration restrictions across the western world leading to growing hostility towards Muslims. There is over screening at security desks for Muslim travellers. For instance, Muslim men having beards, wearing Islamic-related attire, or having a brown skin are more likely to experience Islamophobia in the airport. The presumption is that Islam, as a religion, is violent, inassimilable thus leading to alienation. Muslims may face physical aggression in public spaces such as having the headscarf pulled off, name-calling, or individuals becoming subject of public jokes ‘banter’. On top of that, the media shows Muslims in a negative manner leading to the belief that Muslims are illiberal, threat to the West, and backwards. The detrimental effects include lack of self-esteem and confidence as the Muslims may begin to view themselves as a subhuman due to the societal notions.

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The Muslims may lose their sense of belonging as they feel that any country is not fit for them as they get suspicion and negative sentiments. The discrimination may also shape an entire generation’s expectancy of life leading to underachievement and mental health issues. Moreover, the discrimination against Muslims influences behavior and attitudes in employment politics, social media, politics, and education. For instance, there is discriminatory surveillance of Muslim in public spaces. There is need for wide consultations including interviewing academics, politicians, Muslim community, and charities to get a picture of the extent of the sentiments. According to Suhaimah Khan " Why we need Islamophobia Awareness Month" Suhaiymah Khan says that the society must move beyond talk of prejudice and address the root cause of the anti-Muslim violence. She describes Islamophobia as a governance strategy that legitimizes state violence through actions that dehumanize Muslims.

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In the article, Manzoor-Khan says that Islamophobia month aims to campaign toward the eradication of the injustice. For instance, it highlights the negative stereotypes in the media and rising hate crimes against Muslims in Britain. Government needs to bring community events such as sports and tracks events in the neighborhood to promote cohesion and unity. The awareness campaigns should be taken to public spaces such as schools, colleges, and theatres to educate the masses about Islamophobia. Islamophobia may affect production in the workplace, as Muslim may feel neglected by management due to their religion. According to Islamophobia - Lived Experiences of Online and Offline Victimisation, … “it should be noted here that Islamophobia did not come into existence post 9/11. Muslims as a group have suffered from marginalization and faced high risk of being victims of racially motivated crimes prior to this, including after the cold war” (pg.

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com/europe/islamophobia-is-being-defined-as-a-form-of-racism-why-22221. Accessed 10 Dec 2018. Hopkins, Peter, and Kate Botterill. Eight Ways That Islamophobia Operates In Everyday Life".  The Conversation, 2018, https://theconversation.  Islamophobia: The Ideological Campaign against Muslims. Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, 2011.

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