Securitization of migration

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Criminology

Document 1

percent of the population in the world lives in a country other than the country of birth (United Nations, 4). In Europe, migration is among the most contentious political issues (Huysmans, 751). Asylum and migration issues have gained importance in contemporary security politics both in academic literature and real world practices. Based on the securitization theory of Copenhagen School of Security Studies, many scholars think that asylum and migration have become securitized, that is, socially constructed as security issues, in the European Union (Farny, 1). This essay outlines the concept securitization of migration (the increasing linkages between migration and security). It explains the concept of migration and security and links them to securitization theory. It then discusses how securitization of migration shapes the responses of European states to international migration or its implications. It ends with a conclusion summarizing the discussion. The concept of securitization of migration According to the Copenhagen School of Security Studies define securitization of migration as socially constructing migration as a security issue (Farny, 1). The rise of securitization is linked with September 11 events where migration was associated with security and terrorism, among other threats (Gabrielli, 312). There has been increased shaping of migration as a security issue in terms of internal and external control of foreigners. These issues have revealed that control of borders is an essential element of state sovereignty. Furthermore, globalization is increasingly enhancing securitization of migration. Globalization of risk where First World problems are exported to Third World and vice versa (Rasmussen, 326). Thus the majority of conflicts happen inside states.

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In other words, the enemy is within. This has led to restrictive and control-oriented regulations on the flow of people. People relocate for various reasons such as state collapse, climate change, conflicts, economic crises and many more (Topulli, 87). However, migration is among the most controversial issues of security agendas. In the last decade, several countries have seen a rise in immigration (globalization of migration), coupled with an increase in fear of terrorists, illegal immigrants and threats to internal safety (Farny, 1). Securitization is an effective way of mobilizing political support and institutional means (Huysmans, 8). Insecurity means fear and political fear is very powerful (Balzaq, 219). Migration is a societal issue with experiential threat towards culture, language and identity. As such the community is the audience and plays an important role in the securitization of migration.

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This is possible due to the fact that the community seeks to preserve the criteria of membership and brings out the sense of protecting a norm (Huysmans, 36). At that time, migration policy was not an issue of importance for the European Communities as the free movement of workers from the third countries (non-member states) was a more negligible issue in the development of the internal market. In Europe, migration was considered in the context of social and economic rights until in the mid 1980s when the focus changed from the development of the internal labour market when immigration began to be politicized (CITE). This was due to the uncertainty between immigration and asylum. Politicization of asylum and immigration paved way for its securitization. Securitization of migration and how it shapes European international migration policies There have been two distinct developments in the European security policy and practice.

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Strategies of managing unauthorised migrants in Europe Generally, the implications of the securitization of migration include more restrictive immigration and asylum policies, tighter external border controls and new surveillance and control devices (Farny, 1). Policy narratives relating to unauthorized migration into Europe are not only fuelled by this sense of urgency, but also by competing knowledge arguments in each of the three components of such narratives including the causal mechanisms at work, the nature of the problem and the effects of the policy interventions (Carling and Maria, 42). They are unauthorised arrivals in the sense that the migrants enter the European territory without permission. The extent and urgency of the migration issue call for effective policy measures. Migrants arrive in thousands and create logistical problems, financial costs and increase security concerns hence securitize migration.

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The states must show that they can take robust action in the face of danger. Second, security anxiety is triggered by migrants without identification papers. Third, security is the most viable common ground when supranational decisions are required (Carling, 34). Besides, the European states have a sovereign right to manage population flow across their borders. Protection of the migrants Securitization of migration has been seen as protecting the borders of Europe while to some extent violating the rights of the migrants whether authorized or not. This agency coordinates control measures between European member states, as well as cooperation with third states. This has made Europe to engage relevant third-country authorities in joint surveillance beyond the European territory. Such cooperation makes it easy for the identification of migrants for reasons of readmission. Therefore, it can be inferred that European states have responded to securitization of migration by extraterritorialising of European migration management (De Haas, 1312).

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However, the cooperation-focused policy narrative is premised on the presumption of common interests in the management of migration in the European states and the third countries. Even in the 17th and 18th century, such transportation was an important technology of punishment used for unwanted citizens and prisoners of war (Bosworth et al. Expulsion and termination of membership are still used as immigration control practices separate from penal discourse. As such, deportation is seen as something other than punishment (ibid. Regarding unauthorized migration, repatriation is a powerful signal to countries of origin that illegal migration is futile. When linked to the policy narratives originating from migration, repatriation depends on cooperation with countries of departure. In addition, post arrival processing is a strategy used by European states to control migration. This is the case-by-case processing of the apprehended migrants in order determine their identities (Carling, 340).

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This process establishes the nationalities and identities of the migrants and evaluates claims for asylum. It is a very decisive process for both migrants’ rights and European security objectives. As such, the authorities must close the case before detention periods are over. This implies that just as repatriation, pre-border surveillance and control needs the cooperation of the third countries in order to effectively control migration. Alternative approaches based on incentives and decision-making The prevention of illegal employment in Europe, employment creation in countries of departure, programmes for legal migration and awareness campaigns in countries of departure represent alternative approaches based on incentives and decision-making. Europe is in the list of fortress continents or blocs of nations with fortified external borders and easy internal access to cheap labour but it has sealed off its external borders thus establishing a locked-out continent, whose residents are not needed even for their cheap labour (Aas, 32).

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For example, Europe has locked-out the unauthorized boat migrant from employment opportunities even though they are a source of cheap unskilled labour. However, the flow of illegal migrants to Europe seems to have been perpetuated partly by the opportunities for illegal employment in Europe. Thus, another response is creating employment opportunities in countries of departure. This has been the softer side of the approach to migration. It involves promoting development in areas of origin (De Haas, 836). However, improving the economic capacity across the population is more likely to enhance the aspirations of migration rather than decreasing them (Bakewall, 1342). Even so, creating a labour market that rewards education and merit in the countries of origin would encourage residents of these countries to work in there without the intentions of migration. They may also dismiss such information as being biased propaganda to just discourage them.

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Additionally, potential migrants may want to take the risks in order to change their lives thus making these campaigns irrelevant (Carling and Maria, 50). Conclusion It is evident that securitization of migration has made Europe’s control of borders to be stricter even in this age of globalization. Securitization of migration has made European states to have restrictive and control-oriented policies. Works Cited Aas, Katja Franko. Bakewell, Oliver. ‘Keeping Them In Their Place’: The Ambivalent Relationship Between Development And Migration In Africa. Third World Quarterly 29. Web. Boswell, Christina. Displacement And Stigma: The Social-Psychological Crisis Of The Deportee. Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal 5. Web. Carling, Jørgen, and María Hernández-Carretero. Protecting Europe And Protecting Migrants? Strategies For Managing Unauthorised Migration From Africa. Web. De Haas, Hein. Turning The Tide? Why Development Will Not Stop Migration.

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Development and Change 38. Web. Print. Huysmans, Jef. The European Union And The Securitization Of Migration. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 38. Web. A Parallel Globalization Of Terror': 9-11, Security And Globalization. Cooperation and Conflict 37. Web. Dec. Topulli, Enela.

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