To what extent did pollution around water bodies affect the growth and population of waterfowls in Ghotnimbala
This has been manifested in the reduction of the number of birds in their natural habitat. Ghotnimbala is a lake that has been a habitat to several species. The avifaunal habitats have been encroached by the destruction that takes place in the cutting of trees and plants that represents the foraging gamut of the birds in that habitat. These human activities reduce the lands and the foraging lands that the birds can explore and therefore are forced to move because the current habitat can no longer support them. The birds at times are forced to inhabit urban centres and areas because of the destruction of their natural habitats. The lake has a large amount of weed that are submerged in the lake.
The number of organisms are many because of this. Food at this basin is, therefore, in abundance and thus attracts a large number of bird species throughout the year. Ghotnimbala is a lake that is found in the state of Maharashtra and is a fresh water lake. This lake has conditions that makes it favourable for habitation by several fauna especially the birds. These anthropogenic activities have reduced the favorability of this lake for habitation by the avifauna. These activities that affect the lake kill the zooplanktons and the main organisms that act as the cornerstones of this ecosystem. The end result is the non-sustenance of the lake to other organisms in the chain. The avifauna being the most beneficiaries in Ghotnimbala will be mostly affected.
The siltation also in the lake plays a vital role in clogging of the ecosystem causing death and decay of aquatic organisms that are responsible for the enrichment of the ecosystem. Ghotnimbala is a lake that is faced with pollution with pollution from the human beings and it is important to study the effect that this has had on the original habitants of these place. This aims to show the extent in which this has taken place in Ghotnimbala by considering one species in the lake, the waterfowl. Research question To what extent did pollution around water bodies affect the growth and population of waterfowls in Ghotnimbala, India between 2012 and 2018? Hypothesis Null hypothesis: Pollution around water bodies has affected the growth and population of waterfowls in Ghotnimbala, India between 2012 and 2018.
Alternate Hypothesis: Pollution around water bodies has affected the growth and population of waterfowls in Ghotnimbala, India between 2012 and 2018. Variables Independent Variable: • The time of study from 2012 to 2018 • The lake which is the habitat of the waterfowl. The observation of the birds will be done twice in the day, 3 hours at dawn and 3 hours at dusk78. Results Pollutants The main pollutants that are identified in Ghotnimbala Lake that are identified by observation of the lake are: • Detergents • Siltation • Waste disposal in the lake • Open defecation in the banks of the reservoirs The pollution levels around Lake Ghotnimbala in the period of study (2012-2018) have continuously risen as the anthropogenic processes and activities intensify. All the agents of pollution that pollute the freshwater lake has increased.
Avifauna Count The number of species that were observed reduced in the time of study. The average number of species in 2012 was 54 and has reduced to 43 in 2018 as illustrated in Table 1. With the death and decay of these important organisms the water animals that were dependent on them reduce in number. Generally, the available food for the avian species that reside within the basin of the lake reduces. It is common place knowledge that the survival of any animal species is hard without the availability of enough food. The birds reduce in number because of the constrained resources. This explains the less number of the waterfowls in the lake because of the pollution levels that have generally increased as the human activities around the lake continue to intensify.
This shows that steps need to be taken to preserve the waterfowls as well as other species of birds that are available within the basin of the Lake. The study does not suggest the various ways of mitigating the problem that it has proved exists and needs an urgent reprieve. Further areas of research For this project, further research needs to be conducted to specify the exact pollution effect that reduces the number of different species. Research should be done on strategies that can be used to counter the effects of pollution to preserve the avifauna that are habitats of Ghotnimbala River. Application and solution The hazards that are experienced because of the pollution that takes place in the lake needs urgent reprieve and solutions.
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