Toxic masculinity essay

Document Type:Essay

Subject Area:Criminology

Document 1

The true measure of how manly an individual is supposed to act like is measured by brutality and sex. Furthermore, the lack of hypersexual traits and emotional vulnerability are grounds for the dismissal of the status as a “man”. The forthcoming discussion will relate the manner in which tendencies of toxic masculinity are significant contributors of violence against girls and women. It essential to take into consideration the fact that the term toxic masculinity does not automatically mean that men are bad or evil, neither does it insinuate that naturally men are violent (Banet-Weiser & Miltner, 2016). The conversation regarding toxic masculinity was initiated by the men as well as the movement of feminists that were also working on uncovering toxic femininity. The men took recognition of the amount of good that came from providing women with options that were healthier in relation to toxic femininity. The men begun to take notice of aspects that they could pick up from their feminist counterparts and apply similar theories that related to gender construct in their own experiences (Bobonis, González-Brenes, & Castro, 2013). The discussion on toxic masculinity is essential because of the dangerous manner in which the brand of masculinity is twisted in the classrooms and even the media whenever mass killings and shootings occur. The manner in which the media relates violent incidents to the concept of toxic masculinity is evident from instances such as the October 2017 Las Vegas mass shooting as well as the November 5th church shooting (Bobonis, González-Brenes, & Castro, 2013). During the assessment of such incidents of violence, there are three routes taken in an attempt to explain the reasons for its continuing rise.

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Violence over the course of the lives of women The rates of gender-based violence and other forms of violence against women and girls is significantly high and it continues to rise as time progresses. According to statistics by the World Health Organization, 35 percent of the feminine gender have experienced either non-partner sexual violence or intimate partner violence over their lifetime (Cattaneo & Goodman, 2015). A thorough household survey by the International Men and Gender Equality Survey IMAGES, discovered that up to 54% of men admitted to have used physical violence against their partners of the opposite sex (Fernández-Cornejo, et al. This survey was carried out on 20,000 men in nine countries. Another comprehensive study by the UN indicated that from the 10,000 men participating in the survey over 50 percent had reported using sexual and physical violence against their female partner (Hadley , 2015).

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Some of the common places that the violence against women occurs is their homes, within the community such as in open spaces, the streets, and even around the schools. The places that these women work are also places they are violently attacked, especially during the odd hours of the day such as during breaks or while working overtime (Fernández-Cornejo, et al. Institutions that are run by the state are no exception to harassment on women. These institutions are inclusive of prisons, social welfare, health, and police facilities. Extended studies indicate that the violence that women experience is not merely at the hands of the male individuals but also as a result of the various transactions in facilities that are dominated by their male counterparts (James, Brody, & Hamilton, 2013). The manner of male socialization incorporates violence into the ideal man.

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Studies indicate that from an early age, boys were taught to associate violence with true masculinity (Lefaucheur & Kabile, 2017). The firm connections between what it means to be a man and violence are evident from the rituals and processes of male socialization. These rituals, such as the rite of passage celebrates a male’s capacity for violence or utilize violence as a component of initiation into manhood (Scott, 2014). Studies indicate that one of the major contributing factors of intimate partner violence is the fact that the perpetrators may have witnessed the violence against their mother in the childhood. In many societies, masculinity and heterosexuality are linked to violence. Violence and aggression are the components that are utilized to link true masculinity and heterosexuality (Haider, 2016). For instance, a widely spread belief is the sexual urges of men are uncontrollable while the women are expected to portray sexually passive tendencies.

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Marriage customs and courtship rituals are formed on such beliefs. These beliefs are the reason as to why in many communities’ women having sex before marriage makes them stigmatized. When it comes to militarism, masculinity and violence are connected. Men would otherwise be reluctant to participate in military action in an instance where it did not involve violence. In response to the reluctance, the military therefore resort to the utilization of images and ideas regarding masculinity (Posadas, 2017). In the military culture, sexual violence is used to reinforce the hyper-masculinity. Sexual violence is also used as a weapon in war. Positive attitudes towards sexual assault encourages individuals to carry out these acts without feeling any guilt. Most occurrences of organized sports among the men encourages and even glorifies acts of sexual assault.

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When men engage in organized sporting activities, they grow accustomed to the norms such as that the incorporation of violence in intimate relationships is just (Carr, 2014). Such attitudes arise from the fact that men believe that they must exercise dominance over women. Such attitudes are not only developed but they are also demonstrated on numerous occasions in athletic settings. Studies indicate that in instances where individuals display acts of violence when they played sports even in high-school or college, then they are likely to replicate similar actions in the future (Miller, et al. Furthermore, the amount of aggression that an athlete displays on the field is similar to the extended aggression that could be displayed in contexts that are not athletic. Research also indicates that the more aggressive a male individual is, the more likely he is to enjoy sports that encourage and even require similar acts of violence and aggression (Pemberton, 2013).

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For instance, a certain class of working-class American men find mixed martial arts appealing because they sport align with their ideas of what true masculinity entails (Miller M. Nonetheless, the athletes that participate in less aggressive sports such as swimming and table tennis do not display as much physical aggression. Therefore, the acts of violence against women will continue to occur unless there are changes made to the narrative of the ideal man. Only when men are taught to comprehend that violence and aggression is not what defines them, then will sexual and physical assault of girls and women reduce and eventually come to an end. References Banet-Weiser, S. Miltner, K. MasculinitySoFragile: culture, structure, and networked misogyny. Buscatto, M. Fusulier, B. Presentation. “Masculinities” Challenged in Light of “Feminine” Occupations. Recherches sociologiques et anthropologiques, 44((44-2)), 1a-19a.

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Psychology of Violence, 5(1), 84. Chiou, W. Wu, W. Lee, K. The achievement of masculinity through energy-drink consumption: Experimental evidence supporting a closer look at the popularity of energy drinks among men. Gender differences in young adults’ inclination to sacrifice career opportunities in the future for family reasons: comparative study with university students from Nairobi, Madrid, and Reykjavik. Journal of Youth Studies, 19(4), 457-482. Fredman, S. Baucom, D. Boeding, S. Routledge. Haider, S. The shooting in Orlando, terrorism or toxic masculinity (or both?). Men and Masculinities, 19(5), 555-565. Hart, S. Brody, D. Hamilton, Z. Risk factors for domestic violence during pregnancy: a meta-analytic review. Violence and victims, 28(3), 359-380. Johnson, M. Sociology of gender in the French Caribbean: a slow and fragile process. The American Sociologist, 48((3-4)), 402-416. Lindsay, J. Boyle, P. The conceptual penis as a social construct.

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Miller, M. The Foundations of Modern Terrorism: State, Society and the Dynamics of Political Violence (!st ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Oram, S. Trevillion, K. Heise, L. Ellsberg, M. Watts, C. Intimate partner violence, abortion, and unintended pregnancy: Results from the WHO Multi‐country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 120(1), 3-9. Teaching the cause of rape culture: toxic masculinity. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 33(1), 177-179. Reina, A. Lohman, B. Maldonado, M. Scott, J. Illuminating the vulnerability of hegemonic masculinity through a performance analysis of physically disabled men’s personal narratives. Disability Studies Quarterly, 34(1). Stockman, J. Hayashi, H.

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