Victim Blaming Theory
This theory is often associated with victims of sexual assaults or harassments and domestic violence. Victim blame is applied when a perpetrator of a crime is overlooked while blame is passed on to the victim. Victims that survive domestic violence and sexual assaults are faced with several challenges and not the criminal act alone. The most significant repercussion is victim blaming. This theory is put in place when victims of crimes are held responsible for a certain aspect of the crime committed against them. In its complex nature, research has revealed that benevolent sexism is often adopted and used to decrease perpetrator blame and in issuing sentencing rapists to minor sentences (Viki, Abrams, & Masser). This research also indicates that this form of sexism is not acted upon by the society as it is viewed as pro-social.
According to (Durán, Moya, Megías, & Viki), marital rapists that hold benevolent sexism in high regard are not fully held responsible for their actions as other offenders. Additionally, these two types of ambivalent sexism are linked to the objectification of the female gender especially through self-objectification which is also done by women (Liss, Erchull, & Ramsey; Swami, Coles, Wilson, Salem, Wyrozumska, & Furnham). Despite benevolent sexism not being regarded as detrimental, research suggests that it is a contributing factor to victim blaming. This can also be defined sex scripts, it indicates how both women and men are anticipated to behave while engaging in sensual relations (Bateman). Bateman used a gatekeeper model and initiator to study this theory. It upholds the theory that men should strive to attain a level of sexual experience while women should remain pure and chaste despite some preferring not to.
Due to the adoption of this theory to the society, communication impasse occurs through misinterpreted signals such as being taken for a date and a man paying for it might be interpreted as consent for sex. When such instances occur, sexual violations will occur. All the aspects included in this myth are often brought up during victim blame; she was dressed provocatively, she was drunk or he is her boyfriend or even husband. The theory of victim blame is not only applied in sexual assaults or domestic violence cases but also on crimes such as robberies and murders. However, research reveals that rape victims will receive blame compared to other crimes. This is because such crimes are often met with doubt at the initial stage, then followed by the blame in order to absolve the offenders who are often men.
The blame amplifies when substance abuse is involved and the victim personally knows the offender. Men that have reported their experiences reportedly face a great deal victim of blame compared to women in similar situations (Strömwall, Alfredsson, & Landström,). Gender of victims often determines the level and manner of victim blame. Victim blame theory is a new field of inquiry that criminal departments have adopted. Over the years researchers have been drawn to the concept of shared responsibility between offenders and victims in the case of a criminal act and they are now exploiting it. Studies reveal a focus on victim attributes and interactions that occur between offenders and victims to find links that might cause victimization. However, some always find blame and someone to blame a misfortune on.
Victims of crimes seek solace from friends and justice from the government but they are often met with questioning questions and looks. After reporting offenses, victims will endure humiliation and suffering before their story is heard or believed. Inside the criminal justice procedure, victims endure personal sufferings and jury speculation on how one might have avoided the occurrence of an offense. Studies that involved mock juries revealed that if presented with negative results, individuals will try to employ counterfactual thinking so as to imagine how a situation might have been avoided or harbor different results so as to satisfy their psychological ego. A researcher, Janoff-Bulman has suggested that our world would be more sensible when mankind realizes that events that happen in our lives are controllable.
He goes on to state that, believing that misfortune can be prevented by engaging in cautious behaviors and protection against misfortune attained when individuals are worth and become good people (Janoff-Bulman 1985b, pp. Victim blame is not a new theory that has developed over the past few decades. It is a psychological method that people who deny the facts tend to hide in order to ascertain their level of control. According to the study of the 1980s policies, it reveals that societal attitudes have influenced social policies. Some also presented victim-blame attitudes during the study reveal the impact of societal attitudes towards the victim blame theory. Conclusion Victims that survive domestic violence and sexual assaults are faced with several challenges and not the criminal act alone.
The most significant repercussion is victim blaming. This theory is put in place when victims of crimes are held responsible for a certain aspect of the crime committed against them. This is often in the case of sexual violations and at instances of domestic violence. 2, 1992, pp. Bieneck, Steffen, and Barbara Krahé. "Blaming the Victim and Exonerating the Perpetrator in Cases of Rape and Robbery: Is There a Double Standard?" Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 26, no. 9, 2010, pp. 95 paperback. " Children & Schools, vol. 14, no. 4, 1992, pp. Cowley, Amanda D. Davies, Michelle, et al. "Effects of victim gender, victim sexual orientation, victim response and respondent gender on judgments of blame in a hypothetical adolescent rape. " Legal and Criminological Psychology, vol. 14, no. 2, 2009, pp. , and A. Pepitone. "Judgments of Rape.
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