Women Equality Literature Review

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Psychology

Document 1

Equality means a robust economy, good politics, and a workforce that attracts talents from the whole population and a society that appreciates everyone (Karuppusamy, 2017). While the world has made great progress towards gender equality and women’s empowerment under the MDGs, women continue to suffer violence, sexual harassment, and discrimination across the world. The issue of women equality in the society is quite diverse. Even though there are major similarities among various societies there are many differences that alter the opinion of the issue for each particular individual and society. In an effort to understand the barriers to achieving women equality in the society it is important to look at the bigger picture of the society’s perception of masculinity and femininity, leadership, the perception of boys and girls, caring and the roles of women in the society (Marecek, 2000). The perceptions differ from every society, individuals, and households. However, it is important to understand that most of these stereotypical perceptions are covert and less evidential. Most of the studies I reviewed focused on specific aspects that demonstrate gender imbalance. Most authors were particular on issues such as education, economy, leadership, the role of women in the family etc. However, this paper highlights some of the diverse studies that touch on women equality with a particular focus on issues which are expected to be most crucial for overall women equality and empowerment (Kata, 2012). While reviewing different literature materials, much attention is paid to where gender issues correlate with economic growth of a country.

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A country’s economic growth and development over time are associated with changes in the role of women due to changes in education and economic welfare. A Historical Perspective on Women Equality. When looking at women's lower status in the society today, it is essential to remember how the modern societies perceive them from a perspective of history. The reason why economic growth was witnessed in ancient Europe had something to do with changes in women equality over the last decades (Kata, 2012). It was possibly as a result of the spread of Christianity. The Roman Catholic Church in Europe towards 1000AD took a very negative view of women. Evil things were seen to originate from women and priests were required to stay celibate and leave their women. The rise of Protestantism later appeared to catalyze women equality.

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During that time everyone was required to read the bible themselves leading to increased instruction and literacy in women. Some norms in the society could bar women from some paid jobs and leadership and on the other hand, men could be excluded from child care that was viewed as a territory for the women. There are several recent statistics available on issues that relate to the status of women in the society and around the globe which can be reviewed for more detailed analysis Education: Over the last 40 years’ there have been large and extensive campaigns to invest in educating both boys and girls. In several countries that UNDP has classified as low literacy and human development, women literacy ranges between 7-70% with gender gap being around 25% (i. e. of educated men to % of educated women).

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They participate less than men in paid labor and once they do they earn about 75% of what men get in the same positions. Women work more frequently on a part-time basis and although this adds to their pay it is unlikely that the gender segregation of job and pay differences will change. Decision making and power: Majority of women around the globe lack economic power and this translates to lesser purchasing power and minimal decision making power. In less developed countries laws of inheritance and property ownership do not favor women which are a significant contributor to women’s low financial capability. According to research few women are in top government cabinet ministerial and permanent secretary’s positions both in developing and developed countries (Toffoletti & Starr, 2016). The society is gravely ill-equipped to educate girls and women about these issues basically due to societal norms that entitle men to sex.

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In conclusion from various authors in order to eliminate the vice from the society, there is need to promote cultural transformation to uproot the ingrained seeds of discriminatory patterns of behavior and stereotypes and encourage respect for all individuals regardless of their sex (Fenley, 1988). In recent times social activists such as Tarana Burke have been part of the grass root campaigns to promote women empowerment through empathy among women who have experienced sexual harassment. More research is suggested in this area particularly touching on specific countries and religious contribution towards women equality. Conclusion In general, most studies indicate that there is an increase in women recognition as human beings equally deserving respect and honor as their male counterparts. Gender issues in Gender issues in early education.  Early Years Educator, 8(9), 36-42. doi.

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org/10. eyed. Fenley, T. DEALING WITH SEXUAL HARASSMENT: AMERICAN EXPERIENCE.  Equal Opportunities International, 7(3), 3-6. doi. org/10.  International Journal Of Scientific Research And Management. doi. org/10. ijsrm/v5i6. Kata, A. Starr, K. Women Academics and Work-Life Balance: Gendered Discourses of Work and Care.  Gender, Work & Organization, 23(5), 489-504. doi. org/10.

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