Causes of Ottomans Transformations

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:History

Document 1

In the context of internal politics, the realm endured an increasing incapability to deal with the demands for supremacy in administrations at the regional level and independence (Davison 3). In the foreign policy arena, the empire transformed to the “sick man” of Europe, and it faced the threat of becoming a subject to the western powers (Al-Qattan 511). In the economic sphere, the increasing influence of commercialization and the effect of distant trade enhanced transformation in indigenous economies and the civilizations (Atakul 18). Moreover, these wide-ranging series of political, economic and educational reforms carried out between 18th and 19th century are commonly known as the Tanzimat reforms. In such perspective, it is the purpose of this paper to provide a deep-rooted analysis on the ways the internal political unrest and foreign policies influenced the 18th and 19th-century transformations in the Ottoman Empire with keen interest to the Tanzimat reforms.

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This led to the collapse of the conventional leaders in the Ottoman society. Also, the situation triggered the revolution of the economy since the hassle of giving more than the income forced peasants to search for the market. The peasant contemplated the supply-demand philosophy. In the internal political sphere, the increasing power of the Ayans (notables) fostered transformation in the empire. Despite the disparities in origins, the actors of the provincial administrations garnered a political authority in the local political affairs and constituted a liaison influence between the local people and Istanbul in the routine political issues (Qattan 511). The foreign powers associated with the local actors to organize and execute series of rebellions in the ottoman areas. Literature indicates that foreign powers played a vital role in the successful rebellion in the Ottoman Empire especially the triumph of nationalist rebellion in Serbia and Morea (Buheiry 291).

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The influence of the foreigners differed in different areas. In some places, the foreigners became actors of the local economies and politics rather than causing rebellions (Buheiry 292). In other cases, they competed with the local organizations while in others the prominent become customers to foreign diplomats (Atakul 18). Effects of the Tanzimat Reforms The Tanzimat reforms had true but incomplete influence in the Ottoman Empire. The secularized education system created new secular elites (Atakul 12). The economic transformations wrecked the religious domination of the financial system and created a measure of wealth to the Ottoman society because an open trade strategy increased trade with the Europeans which were accompanied with an access to the new technologies. The technologies were essential in modernizing this economy.

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