Dialogic journal on Development

Document Type:Coursework

Subject Area:Education

Document 1

The knowledge acquired on development will also make it easier for me to identify any problems with the development of the students I am in charge of thereby ensuring that help is accorded on time to ensure that their outcomes are not impacted negatively. Additionally my interactions with other members of the society will become healthier and more meaningful as I will acquire an understanding on human behavior as is influenced by the various aspects of development. I hope to learn about development; what it is all about, the various domains of development and the landmarks of development in each domain associated with every stage of development. I also hope to understand about the various developmental issues that are faced at each stage of the lifespan. I also hope that by the end of the reading, I will be well informed on the changes in the society’s perception of the various stages of development as well as factors influencing these changes in view. I also hope to learn about the various theories of development, the influence they have on the society’s view on development and general issues of significance in developmental psychology. Quotes from the Readings Hoffnung, M. et al (2015). Studying Development. In: Lifespan Development, 3rd Australasian Edition. Changes happen in all domains at once (Page 5) I disagree with this quote because I feel that while developmental theories may suggest that developmental changes occur in the various domains all at once, every individual is different and as such, their developmental journey and milestones do not necessarily have to realize change at the same time.

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For instance, while one child may be able to walk, speak and socialize by a certain age, another child of the same age may not have attained all the milestones at the time due to such differences as genetic inheritance and environment. abused children and adults with childhood histories of abuse are more likely than their non‐abused peers to view the world as a dangerous place, have poor self‐esteem and have difficulty maintaining close relationships (Page 7) This quote is important because it gives insight on factors that may influence development in the various domains. I agree with the quote that an unhealthy background characterized by abuse as in the quote will have a negative impact on the psychosocial development of the persons from the background thereby resulting feelings of fear, low self-esteem and poor social skills in their victims; both children and adults.

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Changes in one domain often affect those in another domain (page 8) I wrote this quote because it sheds light on the interrelatedness of the various development domains. It is true that changes in one development domain often affect those in another domain. For instance, physical development associated with a certain developmental milestone will be accompanied by some level of cognitive and psychosocial development also associated with the same milestone. Although our genetic inheritance orients us towards certain behaviors, those behaviors will not necessarily occur without the appropriate environment This quote is important because it stresses on the influence of one’s environment on their experiences, attitudes and choices, all of which are reflected in their behavior. It is true that even with genetic inheritance; certain behaviors will only thrive in the right environmental conditions.

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For instance, a child that is naturally gifted in art will only build on their talents if they are in an environment where they are encouraged to explore this interest. There are wide individual differences in children’s skills as a result of the unique biological and social support provided to the child (Page 59) I wrote this quote because it aligns with my belief that while environment may not impede growth and development; it significantly influences the quality of experiences and outcomes in the process of development. I agree with the quote that the nature of biological and social support accorded to the child is of importance with regards to their skills. Children who come from backgrounds where they are supported and encouraged to explore their interests and grow on their strengths will undoubtedly enjoy better outcomes as compared to their counterparts with little or no encouragement and support in their journey of development.

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Development is a lifelong process that is influenced mainly by relationships with others and by the adaptive mechanisms, or coping styles, that people use to deal with life events (Page 57) This quote caught my attention as I read through the chapter because it gave me new insight pertaining to factors influencing development. I agree with the quote on development being a lifelong process and on it being influenced by relationships with others. One of the stories of childhood that are brought up in the film is that different cultures have different ways of raising children. While there are theories and ways of raising that could be considered as the “conventional” way to do it, the truth is that for most people, the way they raise their children is influenced by their cultures.

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For instance, the Chinese way of upbringing children wouldn’t be the same as the American way. However, there are aspects relating to upbringing that could be shared across some cultures. Culture has an impact on the nature and practices of upbringing of children through influences dictated by beliefs, values and norms among other aspects unique to the culture. In light of this, the children ought to be accorded the opportunity to explore and grow on their strengths and interests, with support where needed. Another aspect of the image of the child that comes out in the films is that children learn through play. While there are many ways through which children learn play is one of the most effective of these ways. Play is fun, enjoyable and spontaneous and is therefore more desirable to children than structured learning.

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Through play, children build on their self-confidence and feelings of self worth while also nurturing such skills as social skills, problem solving and creative thinking among others. These stages include toddlerhood which refers to the stage where the child learns to walk and runs from between one to three years of age, early childhood also referred to as play stage, middle childhood also referred to as school age and adolescence which runs from puberty through to post-puberty. The perception of the child as capable could define how childhood is defined and acted. As mentioned earlier, viewing a child as a capable being is concerned with regarding them as persons with interests and strengths and not needy persons dependent on adult support. As such, viewing the child as capable results in childhood being defined as a period where a child begins to explore their interests and build on their strengths freely with parents and caregivers only coming in where necessary to offer guidance.

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Similarly, perceiving the child as incapable will result in childhood being defined as a stage in the child’s life when they are vulnerable, dependent and constantly needing the support of their parents or caregivers and consequently, the period of childhood is spent protecting the children and making all decisions pertaining to their learning, growth and development.

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Document 2

In: Lifespan Development, 3rd Australasian Edition. continuity in the midst of change marks every human life (page 4) This quote caught my eye because of the paradoxical way in which it illustrates the nature of human life. It is true that human life is characterized by continuity and change with the two aspects being constantly in play. However, continuity and change manifest in different intensities in different stages in life with continuity being more manifest than a change in some stages and the opposite manifesting in others. It takes both continuity and change to be fully human (4) I found this quote interesting because it illustrates the essence of human development which lies in the interrelated processes of change and continuity throughout life. I agree with the quote that there are both constancies and changes in the various domains of development and the balance between the two is important for normal human function. Our identity is undergoing patterns of growth, stability, and change throughout our lives (5) This quote caught my attention because it acknowledges the continuity in the growth of identity throughout the lifespan. As is the case with all other domains of development, our identity is not static, and it keeps growing and changing due to the influence of changes in environment and experiences through the various stages in life. There are three major types, or domains of development: physical, cognitive and psychosocial (5) This quote is important because it highlights the wholesomeness of the process of development seeing as it covers all aspects of the self and not just the physical as may be assumed.

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There are three main domains of development which include the domain of physical development which is concerned with biological change; a cognitive development which is concerned with changes in thinking, memory, language ability and use; and psychosocial development which is concerned with changes relationships with other people and in emotions and feelings. It’s true that as is the case with adults as well, children also need acceptance and love from their parents and other people around them in order to attain desirable outcomes in the process of growth and development. Perceiving themselves to be rejected, individuals are more inclined to develop depression, substance abuse, behavior, and mental health-related issues (6). I chose this quote because it builds further on the concept of the influence of acceptance and rejection on the outcomes of people.

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It is true that feelings of rejection will result in such negative outcomes as substance abuse, depression, and other mental health-related issues. This is because it leads to unhappiness and dissatisfaction with life. For instance, while one child may be able to walk, speak and socialize by a certain age, another child of the same age may not have attained all the milestones at the time due to such differences as genetic inheritance and environment. Changes in one domain often affect those in another domain (8) I wrote this quote because it sheds light on the interrelatedness of the various development domains. It is true that changes in one development domain often affect those in another domain. For instance, a physical development associated with a certain developmental milestone will be accompanied by some level of cognitive and psychosocial development also associated with the same milestone.

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Throughout the lifespan, individuals are trying to make sense of what it means to become a child, adolescent or adult and how at each stage their development changes or remains constant (8) This quote illustrates the continuity of development throughout life. It is true that understanding human development shapes our expectations as pertains to children, adolescents, and adults. This is because knowledge of human development causes us to understand the various stages of human development as well as the developmental milestones associated with each stage. As a result, we will have realistic expectations and not expect people around us to perform extraordinarily with regards to their current life stage. Knowledge of development can help you respond appropriately to a person’s actual behavior (13) This quote builds on the topic of the importance of knowledge on development.

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I agree with the quote that knowledge of development helps one respond appropriately to the actual behavior of other people. This quote is important because it explains how knowledge and development may be used to change the society. Through studying development, one gets to understand the rights and needs of all people regardless of age and how access to these needs and rights or lack thereof impacts their wellbeing and outcomes in life. With this, one is better placed to advocate for such needs and rights 22. The concept of childhood as a distinct period in a person’s life is a relatively new invention, at least as judged by how children have been portrayed in paintings over the centuries (14) This quote caught my attention because it changed my view on the perception of childhood as a distinct stage in life because I thought that this is how childhood had always been viewed.

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It is true that the view of childhood as an important stage in life is relatively new as is portrayed in works of art from the 19th century and earlier whereby children were depicted as miniature adults bearing adult-like features, clothing body proportions, and facial expressions. It is true that development is a series of reorganizations with each step of the process causing new characteristics that did not exist before, and which represent the individual’s way of responding to their environment at that given time. Development takes place in stages, namely qualitative changes in development that are characteristic of specific periods of development (16) This quote is important because it sheds light on the successive nature of development whereby a change in stages. Growth and development are successive and goes through a series of distinct stages each associated with certain development milestones.

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As such, certain changes are associated with a certain period or stage of development. A moral sense is never formed completely, but deepens steadily throughout the lifespan, borrowing and incorporating ideas and commitments from all of a person’s previous experiences at each new age (17). This simply means that the personal idea of one influences what they see as right or wrong. This explains the subjectivity of the concept of morality with what one person may deem moral not necessarily being seen in the same light by someone else. Work, play, love, sex, death and the family — these and other universal experiences mean different things as a person ages, and mean different things depending on a person’s current roles and responsibilities (18). This quote is important as it highlights the impact of age, roles, and responsibilities on an individual’s perception of things in life.

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This is as a result of the process of development which comes with a change in priorities, viewpoint and preferences. Certain genetic traits not only have a direct influence on behavior, but can also indirectly influence and shape an individual’s environment (19) This quote is important as it highlights the influences of both nurture and nature on human behavior and environment. It is true that apart from directly influencing behavior, genetics can also shape and influence one’s environment indirectly. An illustration of this is whereby a child that is naturally moody and demanding will shape their environment by making their parents respond to their behavior in order for them to get what they want. Chronic miscommunication among caregivers, and the less effective support resulting from it, can impair a child’s social and cognitive development in the long term (20) This quote explains the link between chronic miscommunication among caregivers and poor outcomes in the child’s long-term social and cognitive development.

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Childhood is one of the most important developmental stages as it is the formative period of life whereby all the domains of development grow significantly. Cross-sectional research is limited to age cohorts’ comparisons and may therefore not provide information on specific ages and individual differences. Longitudinal studies are the only way to obtain accurate information on the events and circumstances in the life of the participants — avoiding recall bias introduced by trying to retrospectively remember events that occurred earlier in the lifespan (22) This quote is important because it explains how the nature of longitudinal studies makes them effective where sequences of change in the life of participants are being observed. It is true that longitudinal studies are the most effective way to obtain accurate information pertaining to events and circumstances being observed for a long period of time.

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This is because longitudinal studies allow for the same participants to be observed over a long period of time, which is not possible with other research methods. Cross‐cultural research contributes significantly to the study of human development by identifying universal changes, predictable events or processes experienced by individuals in all cultures (23) This quote explains the effectiveness of cross-cultural research in the study of human development. There is a general tendency for people to be unnatural when they are aware that they are being observed and this could result in inaccurate findings. Interviews afford the researcher a conversational style to probe the participant’s point of view, and can provide a large amount of information in a short space of time (26). This quote cites the advantage of interviews as a research method.

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Due to their conversational style, interviews make it possible for the researchers to get to find out the point of view of the participants in their studies seeing as one-on-one communication is more effective. Additionally, researchers are able to assess the credibility of the information being availed by participants in their studies, and this promotes the accuracy of their studies. This way, the participants can make conscious decisions on whether or not they want to participate in the studies. Finally, when dealing with vulnerable people, especially children, developmental psychologists must take care to ensure they determine the best interests of the participants involved in a study (29) I wrote this quote because it gave valuable insight into the expected conduct when dealing with vulnerable persons in research studies. I agree with what the quote says on developmental psychologists being required to consider the best interests of the participants in their studies, especially when dealing with vulnerable persons such as children.

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This is important because such persons, owing to their state, may not be able to make any decisions or stand up for their rights and therefore rely on the ethics of the researchers involved to be safe. Because developmental psychologists deal with people, they must treat participants with respect and abide by standards of decency and consider human needs (29) This quote is important because it stresses the need to respect participants in research studies.

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