Discipline Based Literature Review

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Psychology

Document 1

There are a number of ways through which the data can be collected. However, the most general approach is through interviewing the patient. The assessment data can also be gathered through physical examination of the patient and looking into the medical history. Other important information such as family history can also be used as well as general observations. This paper examines the use of psychological assessment taking into consideration the following topic: Individuals with neurocognitive disorders; Individuals with intellectual disabilities; and Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. (2016) investigated the use of counseling treatment outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. It first started by highlighting the assessment procedures that can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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Some of the instruments identified by the research as essential in assessing PTSD include self-reporting where a patient reports of possible symptoms to a clinician. There are also structure interviews. The assessment procedure can be administered by a health care professional specialized in mental health, or by the client with an aim of identifying the common PTSD symptoms. The second study by Scott, Ostermeyer and Shah (2016), points out to the use of data obtained by clinicians as well as those from standardized tests as a way of assessing neuropsychological disorder. For instance, the assessments investigate loss of previously acquired skills or failure to develop normal skills such as talking. On the topic of individuals with intellectual disability, the assessment procedure as illustrated by Lloyd and Kennedy (2014) involves investigation of behavior functions with the assessment techniques evaluating the complexity of the behavior function.

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It can be carried out through indirect assessments, descriptive assessments, and experimental analysis. The second study investigates how intelligence of an adult can be evaluated to reveal intellectual disability (Ackerman, 2017). It aims at measuring PTSD intrusion and avoidance. The method makes it possible to illustrate the variation of symptoms over a prolonged period; making useful for longitudinal analysis. The second one is the General Health Questionnaire that is also self-report but has 28 items. It aims at determining unspecified morbidity of non-psychotic psychiatric impairment. The methodology is widely used in determining the prevalence of psychological disorder. On the other hand, validation in the study by Scott, Ostermeyer and Shah (2016) included series of tests that included: sensory and motor testing, perceptual functioning, processing speed, attention/concentration, language skills, and memory skills among others.

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The assessments are very essential given the condition being assessed. The most plausible assessment approach is that provided by Finnegan (1998). Although it appears tedious, it prevents problems of misdiagnosis. The research provides five stages that clinicians can use to determine whether the exhibited symptoms by a patient are as a result of PTSD or other disorders. The final stage is on planning and future planning. At this time, the clinician has an overall picture of what is affecting the client. The only challenge is findings ways of incorporating technology considering rapid advancements. In conclusion, healthcare professionals are obliged by their ethical and professional standards to provide effective assessment. However, factors such as influence of culture, primary language, values, and customs might influence interpretation of testing and assessment data (Schultheiss & Stead, 2008).

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