Hezbollah in Lebanon research paper

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Anthropology

Document 1

This has been brought about by its territory, population and authority factors for many years which took place before and after the rise of the Hezbollah, a political party and a militia group of the Shia’ community. This paper, therefore, describes a brief history of Lebanon, and the geopolitical factors that enhanced the activities of Hezbollah since its inception. Civilization in Lebanon dates back in the 64 BC when it was under the rule of the Roman Empire. During this time, it was a leading center of Christianity. Other religions sprung later which include the Maronite’s, the Arab Muslims, the Druze. Confessionalism was further promoted by the Taif Agreement that was signed and approved by the Parliament of Lebanon in 1989. The agreement aimed at bringing about a balance in political representation as well as introduce equality among the Muslim and Christians.

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The Shia’s do not accept this but prefer trilateralism. Despite bringing a balance between the Nineteen communities in Lebanon, confessionalism has never been solved regardless of being a vital national goal to abolish it. The Cedar revolution of 2005 tried to address the interference of religious communities in the national politics but failed. Hence Hezbollah considers it a religious duty to fight Israel (Flanigan 19). Due to the interactions and subjectivity to Iran, Hezbollah has acted as a representation of Iran in the ongoing Iran-Israel conflict. The distribution of the Shia Community in the South and North of Lebanon affects Beirut, where Hezbollah has a considerable military capability, and which gives the party the chance to control all the geopolitical dynamics registered on Lebanese soil.

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On a local level, Hezbollah imposed Islamic rule in areas over which they ruled between 1982 and 1990. After becoming a political party, the outcome of municipal elections allowed Hezbollah to uphold an Islamic order in some regions which include Beirut, Baalbek Valley and South Lebanon (Flanigan 55). The rivalry between Iran and Israel made Iran support, Hezbollah in their fight against Israel in Lebanon. In 1989, Hezbollah was recognized as an appropriate organization that would counter the Israel occupation efficiently by the Taif Accord which also allowed to keep their weapons (Salem 17). In 1993 and 1996, Israeli carried out bombing raids and ground attacks against the Hezbollah, but the militia continued with their guerilla activities against them. This war involved the use of suicide attacks against the Israel army and also Israeli targets away from Lebanon.

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Hezbollah is therefore reputed to be among the Islamic rebel groups in the Middle East to apply the tactics of assassination, hijackings, seizing foreign soldiers and suicide bombing (Glassner 206). They confronted the Hezbollah fighters and bombed the infrastructure and housing of Lebanon. Israel failed to stop the rocket attacks on Israel and defeat Hezbollah militarily (Salem 23). The confrontation left Lebanon rudderless for 18 months. Israel used its military strength to gain control over Lebanon’s airspace and the territorial waters. In conclusion, Hezbollah has played a significant role in Lebanon which have affected it politically, socially and economically. (2009), Hezbollah’s social Jihad: Nonprofits as Resistance Organisations, Middle East Policy, Vol. XVI, No. 2, Summer 2009. Glassner, M. I. (2008) Mirror of the Arab World – Lebanon in Conflict.

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