Pharmacology and Pathophysiology Case Study

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Nursing

Document 1

The disease develops gradually and usually worsens over time. It is recommended that early prevention, detection, and treatment help in the prevention of serious damage to the lungs, respiratory complications and also heart failure. COPD is a condition which is most defined by the limitation of the flow of air which is both continuous and has an abnormal inflammatory reaction found in the walls of the lungs that is secondary to the dangerous gases and particles. The resultant of inflammation happens in the larynx, the parenchyma, and the capillary of the pulmonary. The inflammatory response is chronic and due to this, the body attempts to fight against the reaction and narrowing of the small peripherals of the airway eventually occurs (Fletcher, 2013).

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The alveoli that are located adjacent to the bronchioles become destroyed and fibrosis forms. This results in the alteration in the normal functioning of the macrophages found in the alveolar. These white blood cells play an important role in destroying the microorganisms. The patient becomes at risk of developing respiratory infections. According to Boer 2018, various microorganisms such as viral, bacterial and the mycoplasma lead to repeated episodes of acute bronchitis. The patient usually presents with the following symptoms, shortness of breath, and change in the quantity and color of the sputum. The general health status of the patient deteriorates. The condition is aggravated by the severity of the following underlying factors, community-acquired infections such as Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza. Examples of viral causes of deteriorating medical condition include rhinoviruses, influenza, parainfluenza and adenovirus (Biggers, 2017).

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Other pollutants that may trigger the exacerbations are nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. Other factors are hereditary. Pathophysiology of pneumonia The disease occurs when there is an entry of bacteria in the lungs. This causes the walls of the lung to inflame and microorganisms get trapped in the air spaces. Inflammation response occurs in the alveoli leading to the production of toxins that hinder the transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Areas of the lung lack adequate ventilation due to oxygen tension. The cure rate is 90% in most of the patients who are hospitalized (Radovanovic, 2016). Management depends on the results of culture and sensitivity. For Streptococcus pneumonia, the recommended regimen is penicillin G and amoxicillin. The most common treatment regimen is antipneumoccol quinolone such as levofloxacin (Walters, 2014).

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Pharmacology Salbutamol Also referred to as Albuterol is used to treat the musical sounds heard during inhalation and dyspnea which is due to respiratory problems (Rice, 2010). Contraindications These involve hypersensitivity to budesonide and lactation. Adverse effects These involve tachycardia, angina pectoris, urticaria, nausea, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, skin bruising, throat irritation, muscle cramps and dizziness. Nursing considerations and patient health education The nurse should monitor closely for signs and symptoms of hypercorticism if the patient is on antifungal drugs such as ketoconazole Patients with moderate to severe disease should be monitored by the nurse for signs and symptoms of hypercorticism The patient should be health educated on the adverse effects which one should seek medical attention in case they occur. These include itchiness, swelling of the face and fever.

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An individual should avoid grapefruit juice when on this drug. Penicillin This is the best drug of choice recommended in the management of pneumonia that is caused by streptococcus. Mechanism of Action This falls under the b lactamase antibiotics which act as structural analogues, they kill the bacteria through inhabitation and synthesis of the enzymes. Contraindications and adverse effects Patients with hypersensitivity to penicillin The adverse effects occur if hypersensitivity is present, these effects are skin rashes, oedema, chills, and fever. Cephalosporin This is classified under antibiotics and is used in the treatment of pneumonia. Mechanism of action. References Biggers, A. Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Boer,. L. M, (2018). Assessment of the impact of exacerbations in patients with COPD Fletcher, C.

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