The Development of Children Who Experienced Intimate Partner Violence
(2007), violence involving intimate partners has not characteristically been seen as a collective issue; physical punishment to a spouse was unaccepted in America until the mid-19th century. Even today, the society still underestimates the effects posed by violence between intimate partners has on both the direct victim and the child witnesses. IPV exists in entirely all social backgrounds. Therefore everyone is a potential victim (Stover, Meadows & Kaufman, 2009). Research by Mizuno et al. This is a call for practitioners to exercise caution when diagnosing behavioral disorder children, as misdiagnosis in cases of dysregulation is common when re-experiencing symptoms show. This research provides the supportive framework for potential safety mechanisms of young children in sessions regarded as ‘high triggering. ’ Maternal Relationships According to Nina Fredland, et al.
(2015), IPV is directly connected to poor functioning of children and their mothers. This is revealed by their modeling intergenerational outcomes of their study. By examining the emotional regulation and maternal socialization, the researchers wanted to create a protective means for the children exposed to IPV from developing depression and subsequent PTSS. The participants were drawn from a pool of 58girls who were IPV survivors, aged 6-12 years. The results indicated a minimal connection between child adjustment to IPV exposure and maternal emotional socialization. However, acceptance and awareness of fear and sadness in mothers was related to regulated fear and sadness for their children. Therefore, parental guidance, the creation of awareness and coaching led to lower PTSS risks and lowered depression symptoms for children exposed to IPV.
Another mediation strategy of positive adult functioning and childhood IPV exposure was researched by Laura E. Miller-Graff, et al. (2015), who centered on parent-child warmth. The researchers argued that relationships between parent and their children had long-term effects on their adult well-being. Therefore exposure to IPV has hypothesized to break down the parent-child warmth, and create the adulthood psychopathology symptoms. The follow-up examinations were then done after three, six and 12-months, then after four years postpartum. 1% of the women reported childhood abuse; 28. 2% cases of IPV, 25% of depression and 31. 6% of anxiety were reported four years after their first child. Anxiety and depression were associated with childhood abuse, in pregnancy, and the adjustment period of postpartum. Therefore, the Project Support was successful in reducing conduct problems for IPV exposed children.
Policies should be made to incorporate such projects into the practical intervention programs, by governments and private healthcare institutions dealing with Intimate Partner Violence. Another research where the parenting practice affects the child adjustment was done by Abigail H. Gewirtz, et al. This study was to add to the research done on the functioning of children after their exposure to IPV. According to the LPA, five profiles were distinct: low-activity competence among 39% of the children, 31% recorded Average Global Competence, 13% had High Global Competence, 11% of the children had Compromised School Competence, and 6 % recorded Compromised Global Competence. The further distinction of the groups was made using covariates of maternal education, household children number, annual household income and this concluded to differences in the children ’s behavioral problems.
This study uses child competence as an asset for internal discovery. Furthermore, Chien-Chung Huang, et al. (2015) compares early children delinquency with their exposure to Intimate Partner Violence. The advantage of this review is the distinct separation between those living in the midst of violence and, directly targeted child assault. Consequently, Amie Langer Zarling, et. al (2013) added to the research on IPV by examining the symptoms of externalization and internalization among children exposed to IPV. This study was done by examining the processes of intervening. The poor outcomes of the children were related to exposure to IPV and mediating factors such as children’s appraisals, psychological functioning for mothers, harsh disciplinary actions and children’s dysregulation of emotions, were examined. Her study was done based on community-based intervention strategy.
The program was tried on 181 children aged 6-12 years, together with their mothers, who were exposed to IPV, for at least a year. A three conditioned approach was used where interventions were either based on child-only, child and mother (CM) and lastly, comparison of the wait list. The findings of the study were individualized on internalizing and externalizing attitudes and violence related problems. In the three intervening conditions, the CM children were positively influenced and showed improvements in externalizing attitudes and violence-related problems. Therefore there is a need for integrating trauma treatments, and empirically substance abuse validated treatments, into the IPV interventions. Angela D. Connors, et al. (2013) studied the interventions for IPV high-risk offenders. This study as a pre-post-program change to evaluate the relationship between High-Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (HIFVPP) and male offenders who had been incarcerated for IPV perpetration.
It is the same challenge of interpretation of information when mixed research methods are used in a study. Analyzing quantitative and qualitative data is time-consuming, and the variety of information available requires high level expertise. However, this methodology approach has the advantage of creating a pool of all the necessary data required to develop hypotheses and research topic into the discussion and conclusion level. The topic ‘Development of children in intimate partner violence,’ has been widely discussed using the literature sources and refined by the three effects of effects of IPV on Children's Development, namely: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Maternal Relationships, and Children Early Childhood Exposure. However, the discussion of children development and IPV is expansive and, as such, there are other effects of IPV on Children development which led to possibilities of future research on the topic.
, Krishna, R. N. , Groot, A. , & Frederick, J. W. , & Goddard, C. Intimate partner violence: What are the impacts on children? Australian Psychologist, 42(1), 66-77. doi:10. 1080/00050060600726296 Burman, S. P. Intimate partner violence intervention for high-risk offenders. Psychological Services, 10(1), 12-23. doi:10. 1037/a0028979 Fredland, N. , Symes, L. , Lynch, S. , Banyard, V. , Devoe, E. R. , & Halabu, H. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(1), 29-38. doi:10. 1037/a0022195 Huang, C. , Vikse, J. H. , Corbitt-Shindler, D. , & Miller, P. C. Reducing conduct problems among children exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized clinical trial examining effects of Project Support. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(4), 705-717. A. Children’s Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and their Social, School, and Activities Competence: Latent Profiles and Correlates. Journal of Family Violence, 31(7), 849-864. doi:10. 1007/s10896-016-9846-7 Mihalic, S.
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