UN disarmament policy

Document Type:Thesis

Subject Area:Arts

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That's why the UN in his mission of peacekeeping has endeavored to assure security in the aftermath of war. What are the challenges that the United Nations is facing in disarmament? Did the UN always succeed? Is a total disarmament an ideal or a reality? The Central African Republic, Soudan, and Libya are going to be our case study. Introduction A cease-fire or simply an end of the war need not be mentioned in terms of security only. It means then that, when a war ends then people living there will want to live in peace like before, reconstruct and try to forget the old memories of war and in this case will be moving forward as one unified society. However, how about in a situation whereby some sections of the population will still be waging war by murdering, torturing and will be using any type of terror and repression to install themselves as leaders and make other people subjects? This question has raised a lot of concerns about the introduction of the disarmament policies to be brought into place after the cease-fire. These disarmament policies started immediately after the end of World War 2, and some of the superpowers according to history had to limit the production and use of nuclear weapons. Most of the treaties that have been signed have got to do with the chemical and nuclear weapons. During the times of low insurgencies, domestic and foreign have tried much in removing the small arms from individuals as a means of reducing violence.

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In this case, the UN has been at the forefront in helping some of the concerned countries in disarmament policy. In this research, therefore, it will highlight some of the consequences that the UN will bring as a result of waging into war. • Analysis- this will entail mapping out the key entry areas of the armed groups and also identifying them with the aim of programmatic engagement. • Capacity building- this will mean encouraging the warring parties to be submissive towards the agreement. The disarmament, reintegration, and demobilization mediation support team have been deployed to places like the Central African Republic, Libya, and Sudan. Literature Review A lasting and stable world peace can only be established through achieving real disarmament as well as a just global economic order. The global community recognizes that in the nuclear age, disarmament’s objectives and efforts should be complete disarmament through effective global control (Vellodi, 1979).

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From a different perspective, disarmament has is described as detrimental and mainly diminishes military stability. According to Betts Richard (1992), the equalization of military power via disarmament results to alignments congeal resulting to unequal forces. Disarmament eradicates particular arms hence, eliminating the deterrent entailing that weapon. By threatening deterrence, there is high likelihood of war or conflict since particular powers tend to have an advantage over others hence encouraging aggression or weakens deterrence hence making it difficult to prevent conflict. Likewise, Gray Collins (1992) perceives disarmament from a realist point of view asserting that it is unwise and irrelevant. Illustratively, Central African Republic is an Africa nation that has been characterized by violence. Notably, the major causes of this domestic conflict is political. According to Diaye, the CAR’s security crisis is a result of various factors: a politicized and dysfunctional armed force as well as neglecting of the civilians needs by irresponsive military and civilian elites in power.

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Across different successive governments, the nation has failed to meet needs of the ordinary citizens. Hence, a major critical challenge to disarmament has been overcoming the extreme confidence crisis established between the state, population as well as military forces. Brewer’s article seconds Muggah’s assertion that lack of clarity in disarmament operations is a major challenge inSudan. According to Brewer, there are various dilemmas in Sudan. The dilemma of cooperation and coordination impacts the implementation process of disarmament. The United Nations is challenged in achieving successful disarmament in Sudan due lack of coordination between timing and the resources of various private sector, non-governmental, military, government as well as donors involved in the process. Breweralso shows that there exist dilemma between ownership versus speed. As a result of the heightened tensions, on questions the effectiveness of disarmament on promoting world peace.

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Squassoni (2006) showed various reasons disarmamentwas a success in Libya. The sole and major reason for its success was the political willingness to execute the program which was led by Gadhafi. This explains why nations like Sudan and CAR rarely succeed in disarmament since the leaders are less willingly to disarm guns and other arms from the civilians. Zamoshkin (n. Likewise, Thomas (1960) also concurs that disarmament will always remain a dream due to four major reasons. He asserts that, disarmament will remain a dream due to: the factor that the program is technically impossible to attain. Additionally, he argues that assuming that it was technically achievable, the program is psychologically unattainable because states are not yet ready to accept having their action freedom limited. Moreover, he shows that armaments portray the political mistrust among nations hence, for disarmament to succeed the problem of mistrust has to be solved.

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Lastly, Thomas argues that despite thefactor that disarmament could be psychologically and technically attainable, the entire concept is undesirable. In addition, arms control emerged an issue of higher concern with the raised effectiveness of weaponry and the equivalent rise in the wreckage of war. The Hague Declaration to World War II In 1899 Hague made a declaration of banning the use of projectiles whole only purpose is to distribute toxic gases. This was endorsed in The Hague Convention of the year 1907, where it prohibited the use of chemical substances that are toxic in warfare, but it was heavily infringed at the time of World War I. Thus, the declaration of 1899 and the convention of the year 1907 has had no actual impact in restricting poison warfare through the inter-war periods and into WW II and beyond.

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The Cold War WW II, the most destructive war in history and was sensitive for the growth of Weapons of Mass Damage. The form of the chemical arms disarmament that has taken place thus far, and the potential disarmament of these weapons in Libya, Central Africa and Sudan, have no negative impacts. Instead, it tends to be beneficial, removing the hideous of assassinations and lowering the tensions of killing hence saving the few lives. The disarmament could eliminate a deterrent and invite the form of the invasion, Qaddafi surrendered Libya’s chemical and the forms of the nuclear programs only to be ousted and killed, partially as a result of the NATO interventions. Libya assumes that the big deal on its nuclear program could result in the immediate positive transformations on its form of relationship with the US.

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There is a very probability that disarmament can agitate the war, but this is not clear. Additionally, there is no chance for a rise in the retaliation if the chemical weapons are not in the process of application. Arms Control and Disarmament can Prevent War This study finds out that the arms control and the form of the disarmament can generally result in peace by just preventing the war outbreak but instead, these cannot do so when they are alone. The disarmament theoretically prevents the war by decreasing the chances of occurring. This tends to happen due to the arms control solving the issues of the security dilemma hence producing a form of the downgrade in the form of the tensions hence leading to the reduction in the chances of inter-state hostilities.

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The disarmament policy reduces the tensions arising within the nation and with the other nations hence reducing the likelihood of war. The disarmament policy in the Central African Republic (CAR) has become a very big challenge. Her have been several cases of violence as the UN tries to disarm the locals. There is a need to consistently engage in the disarmament of the locals in order to restore the peace in this Nations. Recommendations and conclusions There have been important strides in the chemical weapons preventions and some of the measures that have been taken into place to make sure that the utilization of the chemical weapons is get rid of. This is due to the success factors that have been brought about by the chemical weapons conventions and it has been one of the successes when it comes to disarmament policies and control treaties.

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These countries have therefore acted as a role model for countries like Nigeria, Somalia which have been for a long time been invaded by pogoharam and al-Shabaab respectfully. Power sharing in these countries has been introduced for the warring parties to cease fire and come to a discussion table in order to chart the way forward for the election process. References Betts, R. Systems for peace or causes of war? Collective security, arms control, and the new Europe. International Security 17. Libya’s Nuclear Disarmament: Lessons and Implications for Nuclear Proliferation. Marine Corps University https://www. usmcu. edu/Portals/218/MES/Monographs/MESM%202%20JAN%202012_l o. pdf?ver=2018-10-03-103833-280 Clemens, W. org/africarenewal/news/central-african-republic-challenge-stabilization Muggah R. Negotiating Disarmament and Demobilisation: A Descriptive Review of the EvidenceColombia Internacional. ISSN 0121-5612, pp.

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scielo. org. India International Centre Quarterly, 6(3), 205- 216. Retrieved from http://www. jstor. org/stable/23001610 Ventura, Milo R. Arms Control and Disarmament: Legitimacy, War, and Peace" (2018).

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